CH13

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CH13

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  1. Chapter 13Motivation

    Slide 1 - Chapter 13Motivation

    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
    • MGMT7
  2. © 2015 Cengage Learning

    Slide 2 - © 2015 Cengage Learning

    • 13-1 explain the basics of motivation
    • 13-2 use equity theory to explain how employees’ perceptions of fairness affect motivation
    • 13-3 use expectancy theory to describe how workers’ expectations about rewards, effort, and the link between rewards and performance influence motivation
    • 13-4 explain how reinforcement theory works and how it can be used to motivate
    • 13-5 describe the components of goal-setting theory and how managers can use them to motivate workers
    • 13-6 discuss how the entire motivation model can be used to motivate workers
  3. Motivation Is…

    Slide 3 - Motivation Is…

    • The set of forces that initiates, directs, and makes people persist in their efforts to accomplish a goal.
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
  4. The Basics of Motivation

    Slide 4 - The Basics of Motivation

    • Effort and performance
    • Need satisfaction
    • Extrinsic and intrinsic rewards
    • How to motivate with the basic model of motivation
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
    • 13-1
  5. A Basic Model of Work Motivation and Performance

    Slide 5 - A Basic Model of Work Motivation and Performance

    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
    • 13-1
  6. Effort and Performance

    Slide 6 - Effort and Performance

    • Job Performance = Motivation x Ability x Situational Constraints
    • 13-1
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
  7. Need Satisfaction

    Slide 7 - Need Satisfaction

    • Needs
    • the physical or psychological requirements that must be met to ensure survival and well-being
    • A person’s unmet need creates an uncomfortable, internal state of tension that must be resolved.
    • People are motivated by unmet needs
    • Managers must learn what those unmet needs are, and address them.
    • Once a need is met, it no longer motivates.
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
    • 13-1
  8. A Basic Model of Work Motivation and Performance

    Slide 8 - A Basic Model of Work Motivation and Performance

    • 13-1
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
  9. Predictions of Need Theories

    Slide 9 - Predictions of Need Theories

    • Maslow
    • needs are arranged in a hierarchy from low to high; people are motivated by their lowest unsatisfied needs
    • Alderfer
    • people can be motivated by more than one need at a time
    • McClelland
    • the degree to which particular needs motivate varies from person to person
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
    • 13-1
  10. “What Leads to Effort?”

    Slide 10 - “What Leads to Effort?”

    • Higher-order needs will not motivate as long as lower-order needs remain unsatisfied.
    • It’s difficult to predict which higher-order needs will motivate employees’ behavior.
    • The relative importance of the various needs may change over time.
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
    • 13-1
  11. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Rewards

    Slide 11 - Extrinsic and Intrinsic Rewards

    • Extrinsic rewards
    • tangible and visible to others and are given to employees contingent on the performance of specific tasks or behaviors
    • Intrinsic rewards
    • the natural rewards associated with performing a task or activity for its own sake
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
    • 13-1
  12. Motivating with the Basics

    Slide 12 - Motivating with the Basics

    • Start by asking people what their needs are
    • Satisfy lower-order needs first
    • Expect peoples needs to change
    • As needs change and lower-order needs are satisfied, create opportunities for employees to satisfy higher-order needs
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
    • 13-1
  13. Equity Theory

    Slide 13 - Equity Theory

    • People will be motivated at work when they perceive that they are being treated fairly. In particular, equity theory stresses the importance of perceptions.
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
    • 13-2
  14. Components of Equity Theory

    Slide 14 - Components of Equity Theory

    • Inputs
    • Outcomes
    • Referents
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
    • 13-2
  15. Forms of Inequity

    Slide 15 - Forms of Inequity

    • Underreward
    • when you are getting fewer outcomes relative to your inputs than the referent
    • Overreward
    • when you are getting more outcomes relative to your inputs than the referent
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
    • 13-2
  16. Reacting to Inequity

    Slide 16 - Reacting to Inequity

    • Decreasing or withholding inputs
    • Increasing outcomes
    • Rationalize or distort inputs to outcomes
    • Changing the referent
    • Employees may leave
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
    • 13-2
  17. Adding Equity Theory to the Model

    Slide 17 - Adding Equity Theory to the Model

    • 13-2
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
  18. Motivating with Equity Theory

    Slide 18 - Motivating with Equity Theory

    • Start by looking for and correcting major inequities
    • Reduce employees’ inputs
    • Make sure decision-making processes are fair
    • distributive justice
    • procedural justice
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
    • 13-2
  19. Expectancy Theory

    Slide 19 - Expectancy Theory

    • People will be motivated to the extent to which they believe that their efforts will lead to good performance, that good performance will be rewarded, and that they will be offered attractive rewards.
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
    • 13-3
  20. Components of Expectancy Theory

    Slide 20 - Components of Expectancy Theory

    • Motivation = Valence x Expectancy x Instrumentality
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
    • 13-3
  21. Adding Expectancy Theory to the Model

    Slide 21 - Adding Expectancy Theory to the Model

    • 13-3
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
  22. Motivating with Expectancy Theory

    Slide 22 - Motivating with Expectancy Theory

    • Systematically gather information to find out what employees want from their jobs
    • Take specific steps to link rewards to individual performance in a clear and understandable way
    • Empower employees to make decisions if management really wants them to believe that their hard work and effort will lead to good performance
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
    • 13-3
  23. Reinforcement Theory

    Slide 23 - Reinforcement Theory

    • Behavior is a function of its consequences, behaviors followed by positive consequences will occur more frequently, and behaviors followed by negative consequences, or not followed by positive consequences, will occur less frequently.
    • Reinforcement
    • Reinforcement contingencies
    • Schedule of reinforcement
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
    • 13-4
  24. Adding Reinforcement Theory to the Model

    Slide 24 - Adding Reinforcement Theory to the Model

    • 13-4
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
  25. Components of Reinforcement Theory

    Slide 25 - Components of Reinforcement Theory

    • Positive reinforcement
    • Negative reinforcement
    • Punishment
    • Extinction
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
    • 13-4
  26. Schedules for Delivering Reinforcement

    Slide 26 - Schedules for Delivering Reinforcement

    • Continuous
    • Intermittent
    • fixed interval
    • variable interval
    • fixed ratio
    • variable ratio
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
    • 13-4
  27. Intermittent Reinforcement Schedules

    Slide 27 - Intermittent Reinforcement Schedules

    • 13-4
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
  28. Motivating with Reinforcement Theory

    Slide 28 - Motivating with Reinforcement Theory

    • Identify, measure, analyze, intervene, evaluate
    • Don’t reinforce the wrong behaviors
    • Correctly administer punishment at the appropriate time
    • Choose the simplest and most effective schedule of reinforcement
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
    • 13-4
  29. Goal-Setting Theory

    Slide 29 - Goal-Setting Theory

    • People will be motivated to the extent that they accept specific, challenging goals and receive feedback that indicates their progress toward goal achievement.
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
    • 13-5
  30. Components of Goal-Setting Theory

    Slide 30 - Components of Goal-Setting Theory

    • Goal specificity
    • Goal difficulty
    • Goal acceptance
    • Performance feedback
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
    • 13-5
  31. Adding Goal-Setting Theory to the Model

    Slide 31 - Adding Goal-Setting Theory to the Model

    • 13-5
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
  32. Motivating with Goal-Setting Theory

    Slide 32 - Motivating with Goal-Setting Theory

    • Assign employees specific, challenging goals
    • Make sure workers truly accept organizational goals
    • Provide frequent, specific, performance-related feedback
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
    • 13-5
  33. Living Social Escapes

    Slide 33 - Living Social Escapes

    • Which needs in Maslow’s hierarchy are most important to the employees who work for Living Social Escapes, and how can managers use this information to develop a highly motivated workforce?
    • According to equity theory, how might a Living Social Escapes guide react if he or she feels underpaid or unappreciated?
    • What outcomes or rewards possess high valence for managers and guides who work at Living Social Escapes?
  34. Living Social Escapes

    Slide 34 - Living Social Escapes