Self Guided Lesson Memory and Cognition 4

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Self Guided Lesson Memory and Cognition 4

Created 3 years ago

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  1. Memory and Cognition

    Slide 1 - Memory and Cognition

    • Self Guided Lesson 4
  2.  Memory Reconstruction

    Slide 2 - Memory Reconstruction

    • Memories are often NOT as accurate as we think they are.
    • Elizabeth Loftus (1974) was very concerned about the reliability of eyewitness testimony so she and her associates conducted an experiment where they showed subjects a video of a car crash. After the video, they asked “how fast were the cars going when they ‘smashed’ or ‘hit’ each other?”
  3. Slide 3

    • One week later they asked participants to recall if there was broken glass at the scene.
  4. Slide 4

    • The “smashed” group estimated the car speed as much faster than the “hit” group
    • When asked if there was glass at the accident scene, most responded that yes, there was…when in fact, there was not.
    • This is called misinformation effect
    • Loftus has done a number of fascinating experiments regarding memory…some of which are controversial. Check out the video links provided.
  5. Bartlett’s War of the Ghosts

    Slide 5 - Bartlett’s War of the Ghosts

    • Leveling – material gets simplified
    • Sharpening – highlighting or overemphasizing details
    • Assimilation – make details fit into one’s own culture or schema
  6. Slide 6

    • The frailest part of the memory is it’s source.
    • Source amnesia (sometimes called source misattribution) is when we retain a memory of an event, but not the context in which we acquired it.
    • I do this all the time.
  7. COGNITION

    Slide 7 - COGNITION

    • DEF: thinking, problem solving, knowing, creativity
    • Cognitive psychologists study these activities.
  8. CONCEPTS: chair

    Slide 8 - CONCEPTS: chair

    • Mental groupings of similar objects , events, ideas and people. Chairs vary but they have common features that define the word “chair”.
  9. Prototype

    Slide 9 - Prototype

    • A prototype is the best example or mental image. If we bring in another example, that doesn’t fit the prototype, it might take us longer to adjust our thinking.
    • Chair: vs
  10. Bird?

    Slide 10 - Bird?

  11. Using and misusing heuristics:

    Slide 11 - Using and misusing heuristics:

    • Representativeness heuristic:
    • A stranger tells you about a person who is short, slim and likes to read poetry, and then asks you to guess whether this person is more likely to be a professor or a truck driver. Which would be the better guess?
  12. Slide 12

    • You probably chose the picture on the right, right?
    • It’s a logical assumption but not necessarily one that’s grounded in fact.
    • We use them to predict and compare
  13. Slide 13

    • Availability heuristic – estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; we assume because examples are vivid, that they are common.
    • I call it the “Yeah, but my cousin, in Canada….” syndrome
  14. Problem Solving

    Slide 14 - Problem Solving

    • Cognitive strategies for problems solving:
    • trial and error
    • algorithms – step by step procedures to find a solution
    • heuristic – a cognitive shortcut
  15. Obstacles for problem solving

    Slide 15 - Obstacles for problem solving

    • Confirmation bias – we think we already know the answer so we ignore information that contradicts it
    • P.S. This is why psychology is so dependent on research!
    • Ex. Saddam Hussein and WMD
  16. Slide 16

    • Fixation – (no, not Freud’s fixation)
    • -the inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective.
    • examples of fixation –
    • mental set – what are the next three letters in the sequence?
    • O, T, T, F, F……….?
  17. Slide 17

    • The answer?
    • ….F, S, S
    • See? One, Two, Three, Four, Five, Six, Seven
    • Now, try this:
    • J, F, M, A,……..any easier?
    • of course!! Because you have been primed to see the pattern above.
  18. Slide 18

    • Functional fixedness – when we can only think of the familiar functions of certain things?
    • E.g ransack the house looking for a screwdriver when a coin can be used to turn a screw
  19. Slide 19

    • Belief perseverance – clinging to one’s initial conceptions even though the basis for them has been discredited……
    • …see the clip about the Nigerian scammers from Dr. Phil.
    • Who you think is writing……….…..who IS writing.
  20. Framing

    Slide 20 - Framing

    • How and issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments!
    • We will spend more total money buying stuff that’s 25% off!
    • We would be terrified to know that 10% of the population suffers complications from surgery, but tend to ignore the fact that 90% of people have no problems at all!
    • A coat marked down to $100 from $150 seems like a better deal than the same coat priced $100 to begin with!
    • Opting out of being an organ donor brings greater donation rates than opting in!