Developing a Lung Cancer Pre-Screening Tool To Lower Lung Cancer Mortality Rates

A lab research project by Aditi Kumar done for the 2015 Bio Expo. Questions and comments are welcome at my email: kumar.aditi@hotmail.com

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Developing a Lung Cancer Pre-Screening Tool To Lower Lung Cancer Mortality Rates

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A lab research project by Aditi Kumar done for the 2015 Bio Expo. Questions and comments are welcome at my email: kumar.aditi@hotmail.com
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  1. Developing a lung cancer pre-screening tool to lower lung cancer mortality rates

    Slide 1 - Developing a lung cancer pre-screening tool to lower lung cancer mortality rates

    • Aditi Kumar
    • 2015 Biology Expo
    • 9th Grade
    • Timberline High School
  2. The topic & Why its important

    Slide 2 - The topic & Why its important

    • Topic
    • Lung cancer
    • Environmental/Internal factors which can cause and aggravate lung cancer
    • Both types of lung cancers (small cell, and non small cell) have been taken into consideration
    • Importance
    • Lung cancer has the highest incidence and mortality rates of all of the cancers
    • Lung cancer mortality rates are increasing by approx. 3.5% per year
  3. Research question

    Slide 3 - Research question

    • Given the fact that lung cancer has the highest incidence and mortality rates of all of the cancers, can a novel approach to early detection and prevention be used to lower lung cancer mortality rates?
    • Mortality rates – death rates
  4. Practical Need

    Slide 4 - Practical Need

    • Lung cancer is the most common and deadliest type of cancer in the world. According to the American Cancer Society, lung cancer has a 54% cure rate when detected in the primary stages. This cure rate drastically drops down to a 4% when the cancer metastasizes and progresses to the later, more advanced stages.
    • This clearly means that early detection and prevention are the key to lowering lung cancer mortality rates, and that is the need that this project addresses.
  5. Statement of purpose/criterion

    Slide 5 - Statement of purpose/criterion

    • The purpose of this project is to design a medical tool capable of the following:
    • Empowering users to perform a self-evaluation to determine their risk of developing lung cancer
    • Raising awareness of the pandemic that is lung cancer
    • Lowering lung cancer mortality rates
  6. background

    Slide 6 - background

    • Reasons Why Lung Cancer has such High Mortality Rates
    • Lung cancer cases are detected in the last stages
    • Available treatment is to reduce pain, not to treat the cancer
    • Lung cancer is the least funded cancer
    • Lung cancer is not being detected and treated early enough
    • Standardized screening tests are unavailable currently
  7. background

    Slide 7 - background

    • The purpose of this project is to develop a medical tool which can accurately predict a user’s risk of developing lung cancer, inform the user of ways to lower his/her risk of developing lung cancer, and to persuade the user to get themselves screened for lung cancer, in order to increase early detection/prevention rates.
    • If good quality, free, easily available, and reliable pre-screening tools did exist, then more people would be informed of their risk, more people would act to lower their risk, and less people would develop lung cancer as a result.
  8. background

    Slide 8 - background

    • Currently, pre-screening tests for lung cancer risk are available but are inefficient and unreliable to the user. The main issues found with existing pre-screening tests consist of the following:
    • Tests only consider smoking to be a contributor to lung cancer risk, and they do not recognize other factors which can impact lung cancer
    • Tests are catered to a specific age group of people
    • Tests do not take personal information into consideration (e.x. ethnicity, gender, etc.)  
    • Tests do not give patients an action plan to lower lung cancer risk
    • Tests are not based on live data
    • The goal of this project is to fix the issues defined and to design a tool which can lower lung cancer mortality rates as a result.
  9. How this project was conducted

    Slide 9 - How this project was conducted

    • This project was split into two parts:
    • Statistical analysis
    • Data was collected and a statistical analysis was conducted
    • Trends/variables found in data were isolated
    • Prototype development
    • A prototype criteria was assigned
    • 2 prototypes were designed
    • A final solution was proposed
    • Environmental Protection Agency
    • American Cancer Society
    • US Census Bureau
  10. Statistical analysis

    Slide 10 - Statistical analysis

    • Part 1
  11. Collected data

    Slide 11 - Collected data

    • Data was collected from three main sources:
    • American Cancer Society (incidence and death rates from 2012-2014)
    • Environmental Protection Agency (information on air pollution levels, etc. from most recent years possible)
    • US Census Bureau (population data from 2010/demographic data)
  12. Data analysis

    Slide 12 - Data analysis

    • Analyse-It Software for Excel
  13. Data analysis

    Slide 13 - Data analysis

  14. Final solution and work process

    Slide 14 - Final solution and work process

    • Phase 2
  15. Criterion for prototype

    Slide 15 - Criterion for prototype

    • The criterion for the prototype is as follows:
    • Provide steps on how to mitigate lung cancer risk
    • Calculate risk based on latest data (dynamic data)
    • Easy to use/access/understand
    • Efficient/accurate/interactive
  16. Prototype 1: universal heath database exclusive

    Slide 16 - Prototype 1: universal heath database exclusive

    • Web Application
    • Web Server
    • Calculation Logic
  17. Capabilities

    Slide 17 - Capabilities

    • Accurately calculates risk based on latest environmental/census bureau data
    • Sends email reminders/information on screening tests
    • Provides information on how to reduce risk
    • Sends users reminders to update data once a year
    • Automatically recalculates risk based on changes in data
  18. Prototype 2: universal health database inclusive

    Slide 18 - Prototype 2: universal health database inclusive

    • Universal Health Database – Contains the medical/health records of every single person living in the United States of America
    • Can be accessed via social security number
  19. capabilities

    Slide 19 - capabilities

    • Can access user health information in real time
    • More accurate risk calculations
  20. categorization

    Slide 20 - categorization

  21. Risk determination for calculation logic

    Slide 21 - Risk determination for calculation logic

  22. weightage

    Slide 22 - weightage

  23. Risk weightage allocation table

    Slide 23 - Risk weightage allocation table

  24. Risk determination

    Slide 24 - Risk determination

  25. conclusion

    Slide 25 - conclusion

    • Based on the two prototypes designed, the Universal Health Database Inclusive Prototype has more benefits compared to the Universal Health Database Exclusive Prototype. The additional benefits consist of the following:
    • There would be less information for the user to input, leading to more convenience to the user
    • All of the information would be verified and accurate, as opposed to a user inputting the wrong health information due to a misconception
    • All of the health data would be in one central location
    • Based on the additional benefits of Prototype 2, it is clear that Prototype 2 is the best prototype.
  26. conclusion

    Slide 26 - conclusion

    • The next step for me in furthering my research on lung cancer would be to obtain more data and conduct a more in-depth analysis, and to start working on the code for the proposed solution.
  27. Future enhancements

    Slide 27 - Future enhancements

    • Continue researching to obtain more real-time data
    • Make prototype compatible with Apple, Windows, and Android platforms
  28. constraints

    Slide 28 - constraints

    • Universal Health Database is under development
    • Government approval and funding is needed
  29. Acknowledgements

    Slide 29 - Acknowledgements

    • Mrs. Joan Marshall – Timberline High School’s Biotech teacher, affiliated with the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center
    • Ms. June Dhamers – 6-8th grade Challenge Academy math and science teacher
    • My family – Anil Kumar & Parvati Kumari