macromolecules

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macromolecules

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  1. 1

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    • Macromolecules
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    • Organic Compounds
    • Compounds that contain CARBON are called organic.
    • Macromolecules are large organic molecules.
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    • Carbon (C)
    • Carbon has 4 electrons in outer shell.
    • Carbon can form covalent bonds with as many as 4 other atoms (elements).
    • Usually with C, H, O or N.
    • Example: CH4(methane)
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    • Macromolecules
    • Large organic molecules.
    • Also called POLYMERS.
    • Made up of smaller “building blocks” called MONOMERS.
    • Examples:
    • 1. Carbohydrates
    • 2. Lipids
    • 3. Proteins
    • 4. Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA)
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    • Question:How Are Macromolecules Formed?
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    • Answer: Dehydration Synthesis
    • Also called “condensation reaction”
    • Forms polymers by combining monomers by “removing water”.
    • HO
    • H
    • HO
    • HO
    • H
    • H
    • H2O
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    • Question: How are Macromolecules separated or digested?
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    • Answer: Hydrolysis
    • Separates monomers by “adding water”
    • HO
    • HO
    • H
    • H
    • HO
    • H
    • H2O
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    • Carbohydrates
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    • Carbohydrates
    • Small sugar molecules to large sugar molecules.
    • Examples:
    • A. monosaccharide
    • B. disaccharide
    • C. polysaccharide
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    • Carbohydrates
    • Monosaccharide: one sugar unit
    • Examples: glucose (C6H12O6)
    • deoxyribose
    • ribose
    • Fructose
    • Galactose
    • glucose
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    • Carbohydrates
    • Disaccharide: two sugar unit
    • Examples:
    • Sucrose (glucose+fructose)
    • Lactose (glucose+galactose)
    • Maltose (glucose+glucose)
    • glucose
    • glucose
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    • Carbohydrates
    • Polysaccharide: many sugar units
    • Examples: starch (bread, potatoes)
    • glycogen (beef muscle)
    • cellulose (lettuce, corn)
    • glucose
    • glucose
    • glucose
    • glucose
    • glucose
    • glucose
    • glucose
    • glucose
    • cellulose
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    • Lipids
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    • Lipids
    • General term for compounds which are not soluble in water.
    • Lipids are soluble in hydrophobic solvents.
    • Remember: “stores the most energy”
    • Examples: 1. Fats
    • 2. Phospholipids
    • 3. Oils
    • 4. Waxes
    • 5. Steroid hormones
    • 6. Triglycerides
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    • Lipids
    • Six functions of lipids:
    • 1. Long term energy storage
    • 2. Protection against heat loss (insulation)
    • 3. Protection against physical shock
    • 4. Protection against water loss
    • 5. Chemical messengers (hormones)
    • 6. Major component of membranes (phospholipids)
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  17. 17

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    • Lipids
    • Triglycerides:composed of 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids.
    • H
    • H-C----O
    • H-C----O
    • H-C----O
    • H
    • glycerol
    • O
    • C-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3
    • =
    • fatty acids
    • O
    • C-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3
    • =
    • O
    • C-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH
    • =CH-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3
    • =
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    • Fatty Acids
    • There are two kinds of fatty acids you may see these on food labels:
    • 1. Saturated fatty acids: no double bonds (bad)
    • 2. Unsaturated fatty acids: double bonds (good)
    • O
    • C-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3
    • =
    • saturated
    • O
    • C-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH
    • =CH-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3
    • =
    • unsaturated
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    • Proteins
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    • Proteins (Polypeptides)
    • Amino acids (20 different kinds of aa) bonded together by peptide bonds (polypeptides).
    • Six functions of proteins:
    • 1. Storage: albumin (egg white)
    • 2. Transport: hemoglobin
    • 3. Regulatory: hormones
    • 4. Movement: muscles
    • 5. Structural: membranes, hair, nails
    • 6. Enzymes: cellular reactions
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    • Proteins (Polypeptides)
    • Four levels of protein structure:
    • A. Primary Structure
    • B. Secondary Structure
    • C. Tertiary Structure
    • D. Quaternary Structure
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    • Primary Structure
    • Amino acids bonded together by peptide bonds (straight chains)
    • aa1
    • aa2
    • aa3
    • aa4
    • aa5
    • aa6
    • Peptide Bonds
    • Amino Acids (aa)
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    • Secondary Structure
    • 3-dimensional folding arrangement of a primary structure into coils and pleats held together by hydrogen bonds.
    • Two examples:
    • Alpha Helix
    • Beta Pleated Sheet
    • Hydrogen Bonds
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    • Tertiary Structure
    • Secondary structures bent and folded into a more complex 3-D arrangement of linked polypeptides
    • Bonds: H-bonds, ionic, disulfide bridges (S-S)
    • Call a “subunit”.
    • Alpha Helix
    • Beta Pleated Sheet
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    • Quaternary Structure
    • Composed of 2 or more “subunits”
    • Globular in shape
    • Form in Aqueous environments
    • Example: enzymes (hemoglobin)
    • subunits
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    • Nucleic Acids
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    • Nucleic acids
    • Two types:
    • a. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA- double helix)
    • b. Ribonucleic acid (RNA-single strand)
    • Nucleic acids are composed of long chains of nucleotides linked by dehydration synthesis.
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    • Nucleic acids
    • Nucleotides include:
    • phosphate group
    • pentose sugar (5-carbon)
    • nitrogenous bases:
    • adenine (A)
    • thymine (T) DNA only
    • uracil (U) RNA only
    • cytosine (C)
    • guanine (G)
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  29. 29

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    • Nucleotide
    • O
    • O=P-O
    • O
    • Phosphate
    • Group
    • N
    • Nitrogenous base
    • (A, G, C, or T)
    • CH2
    • O
    • C1
    • C4
    • C3
    • C2
    • 5
    • Sugar
    • (deoxyribose)
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    • DNA - double helix
    • P
    • P
    • P
    • O
    • O
    • O
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    • 5
    • 3
    • 3
    • 5
    • P
    • P
    • P
    • O
    • O
    • O
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    • 5
    • 3
    • 5
    • 3
    • G
    • C
    • T
    • A
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