June 18th Lesson
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Slide 1 - Sexual And Reproductive Health
Slide 2 - FACTS:
- Among U.S. high school students surveyed in 2013
- 46.8% had ever had sexual intercourse
- OF THESE:
- 40.9% did not use a condom the last time they had sex
- 15.0% had had sex with four or more people.
- (CDC, 2013)
Slide 3 - Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Slide 4 - STD FACTS
- 1 in 4 sexually active adolescents have, had, or will have an STD.
- 1 in 3 College students have, had, or will have an STD.
Slide 5 - TYPES OF STD’S
- Pubic Lice
- Can be treated and cured. But if not treated can cause MAJOR reproductive problems like sterility.
- Can be managed with medication but can not be cured. Can lead to SERIOUS HEALTH CONCERNS
- Can be easily treated and cured with shampoos and creams.
Slide 6 - Bacterial STDs
Slide 7 - Chlamydia
- The most common bacterial STD that infects the genitals and urinary tracts of both sexes.
- There are an estimated 2.8 million new cases of chlamydia each year.
- 75% of infected females and 50% of infected males have no symptom but are still contagious!
- Untreated chlamydia can spread throughout the entire reproductive system which can cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and sterility.
- Antibiotics are used to treat chlamydia.
- The best way to avoid the risk of getting chlamydia is to use a condom every time you have sex.
- Although it is easy to cure, chlamydia can make it difficult for a woman to get pregnant if left untreated.
Slide 8 - SYMPTOMS
- Will appear 7-28 days after sex with an infected partner
- Most women and many men infected with Chlamydia have NO symptoms.
- Men: some or all of the following - a watery, white drip from the penis, burning or pain when urinating, more frequent urination, swollen or tender testicles.
- Women: some or all of the following - discharge from the vagina, bleeding between menstrual periods, burning or pain when urinating, more frequent urination.
Slide 9 - Gonorrhea
- A common bacterial STD that infects the genitals and urinary tracts of males and females.
- There are over 700,000 new cases of gonorrhea diagnosed each year. (www.cdc.gov)
- Symptoms may include a milky discharge from the penis or vagina and a burning sensation during urination.
- Many infected females have no symptoms.
- Untreated gonorrhea can spread into the bloodstream and infect the joints, heart valves, and the brain. It can also cause PID and sterility.
- Antibiotics are used to treat gonorrhea.
Slide 10 - Syphilis
- A bacterial STD that occurs in 4 stages.
- Primary syphilis (stage 1): A painless, open sore called a chancre develops at the site where the bacteria entered the body, such as the genitals or the mouth. The chancre will disappear on its own after several weeks. The bacteria remains active in the body and the person is contagious.
- Secondary syphilis (stage 2): A skin rash develops several weeks or months after the chancre first appears. Other symptoms include: fever, tiredness, swollen lymph glands, weight loss, sore throat, and headaches. Even without treatment these symptoms will disappear. They will continue to come and go during the next few years.
- Body Rash
Slide 11 - Syphilis(continued)
- Latent syphilis (stage 3): This stage is characterized by the lack of symptoms. This stage may last several years or several decades.
- Late syphilis (stage 4): During this stage the bacteria does irreversible damage to body organs. Mental incapacity, blindness, paralysis, heart disease, liver damage, and death may occur.
- Syphilis can be safely treated during the early stages with antibiotics .
Slide 12 - Viral STDs
- Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
- Genital Herpes
- Viral Hepatitis
Slide 13 - Common HPV Related Diseases
- HPV infection. About 79 million Americans are currently infected with HPV. About 14 million people become newly infected each year. HPV is so common that most sexually-active men and women will get at least one type of HPV at some point in their lives.
- Genital warts. About 360,000 people in the United States get genital warts each year
- Cervical cancer: More than 11,000 women in the United States get cervical cancer each year.
Slide 14 - HPV (Human Papillomavirus)
- Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted disease (STD).
- There are more than 100 HPV types that can infect the genital areas of men and women.
- You cannot see HPV. Most people who become infected with HPV do not even know they have it.
Slide 15 - HPV Facts
- Most people with HPV do not develop symptoms or health problems.
- But sometimes, certain types of HPV can cause genital warts in men and women.
- Other HPV types can cause cervical cancer and other less common cancers, such as cancers of the vulva, vagina, anus, and penis.
- The types of HPV that can cause genital warts are not the same as the types that can cause cancer.
- HPV types are often referred to as “low-risk” (wart-causing) or “high-risk” (cancer-causing), based on whether they put a person at risk for cancer.
- In 90% of cases, the body’s immune system clears the HPV infection naturally within two years. This is true of both high-risk and low-risk types.
Slide 16 - HPV Protection
- A vaccine can now protect females from the four types of HPV that cause most cervical cancers and genital warts. The vaccine is recommended for 11 and 12 year-old girls and boys. It is also recommended for females between the ages of 13 and 26 who have not yet been vaccinated.
- For those who choose to be sexually active, condoms may lower the risk of HPV. Condoms may also lower the risk of developing HPV-related diseases, such as genital warts and cervical cancer. But HPV can infect areas that are not covered by a condom—so condoms may not fully protect against HPV.
- Individuals can also lower their chances of getting HPV by being in a mutually faithful relationship with someone who has had no or few sex partners.
- The only sure way to prevent HPV is to avoid all sexual activity
Slide 17 - Herpes (HSV)
- Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted virus.
- Genital herpes is common in both men and women in the U.S.
- Most people who have genital herpes don’t know it.
- If you have symptoms, the most common ones are painful blisters and sores.
- You can pass genital herpes to others without knowing it.
- There is no cure for genital herpes, but there are treatments for the symptoms.
- Genital herpes does not usually cause serious health problems.
Slide 18 - Herpes (HSV)
- Genital herpes often doesn’t cause any symptoms.
- If you do have symptoms, you might notice:
- Painful blisters or sores on or around the genitals or anus. These sores typically heal within two to four weeks.
- Feeling like you have the flu when the sores are present.
- Sores that come back several times within a year. The presence of the sores is called an outbreak.
- There are two types of genital herpes virus - HSV1 and HSV2. Both types can cause sores or blisters on or around the genitals. HSV1 can also cause sores on the mouth or lips, which are called fever blisters.
Slide 19 - Herpes (HSV)
- You can get genital herpes by having sex with someone who has it. “Having sex” means having anal, oral, or vaginal sex.
- You can also get genital herpes if your genitals touch the infected skin or secretions (like saliva through oral sex) of someone who has it.
- You can get genital herpes even if your partner shows no signs of the infection.
Slide 20 - Viral Hepatitis
- Hepatitis B is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It ranges in severity from a mild illness, lasting a few weeks (acute), to a serious long-term (chronic) illness that can lead to liver disease or liver cancer.
- Transmission: Contact with infectious blood, semen, and other body fluids from having sex with an infected person, sharing contaminated needles to inject drugs, or from an infected mother to her newborn.
- Vaccination: Hepatitis B vaccination is recommended for all infants, older children and adolescents who were not vaccinated previously, and adults at risk for HBV infection.
- Hepatitis C is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV infection sometimes results in an acute illness, but most often becomes a chronic condition that can lead to cirrhosis of the liver and liver cancer.
- Transmission: Contact with the blood of an infected person, primarily through sharing contaminated needles to inject drugs.
- Vaccination: There is no vaccine for hepatitis C.
Slide 21 - SYMPTOMS
- Loss of Appetite
- Yellowing of Skin and Eyes
- Very dark Urine
- Abdominal Pain
Slide 22 - HIV/AIDS
- What is HIV?
- HIV - the human immunodeficiency virus - is a virus that kills your body’s "CD4 cells." CD4 cells (also called T-helper cells) help your body fight off infection and disease.
- What do I need to know about HIV?
- The first cases of AIDS were identified in the United States in 1981, but AIDS most likely existed here and in other parts of the world for many years before that time. In 1984 scientists proved that HIV causes AIDS.
- Anyone can get HIV. The most important thing to know is how you can get the virus.
- What is AIDS?
- AIDS - the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome - is a disease you get when HIV destroys your body’s immune system.
- When your immune system fails you can become very sick and can die.
- How do I know if I have HIV or AIDS?
- You might have HIV and still feel perfectly healthy. The only way to know for sure if you are infected or not is to be tested.
Slide 23 - HIV/AIDS
- How can you can get HIV?
- By having unprotected sex- sex without a condom- with someone who has HIV. The virus can be in an infected person’s blood, semen, or vaginal secretions and can enter your body through tiny cuts or sores in your skin, or in the lining of your vagina, penis, rectum, or mouth.
- By sharing a needle and syringe with someone who has HIV.
- Babies born to women with HIV also can become infected during pregnancy, birth, or breast-feeding.
- Ways in which you will not get HIV:
- By working with or being around someone who has HIV.
- From sweat, spit, tears, clothes, drinking fountains, phones, toilet seats, or through everyday things like sharing a meal.
- From insect bites or stings.
- From donating blood.
- From a closed-mouth kiss (but there is a very small chance of getting it from open-mouthed or "French" kissing with an infected person because of possible blood contact).
Slide 24 - Other STDs
- Pubic Lice
Slide 25 - Lice
- Lice are parasitic insects that can be found on people's heads, and bodies, including the pubic area. Human lice survive by feeding on human blood. Lice found on each area of the body are different from each other. The three types of lice that live on humans are:
- Pediculus humanus capitis (head louse),
- Pediculus humanus corporis (body louse, clothes louse), and
- Pthirus pubis ("crab" louse, pubic louse).
- Only the body louse is known to spread disease.
- Lice infestations are spread most commonly by close person-to-person contact. Dogs, cats, and other pets do not play a role in the transmission of human lice. Lice move by crawling; they cannot hop or fly.
- Both over-the-counter and prescription medications are available for treatment of lice infestations.
Slide 26 - Scabies
- Scabies is an infestation of microscopic skin mites
- Symptoms include pimple-like irritations that itch.
- Scabies are spread by direct, prolonged, skin-to-skin contact with a person already infested with them. Infestation may also occur by sharing clothing, towels, and bedding.
- Once away from the human body, mites usually do not survive more than 48-72 hours. When living on a person, an adult female mite can live up to a month.
- Several creams or lotions that are available by prescription are FDA approved to treat scabies.
Slide 27 - Trichomoniasis
- Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that is caused by the single-celled protozoan parasite .
- Trichomoniasis is the most common curable STD in young, sexually active women. An estimated 7.4 million new cases occur each year in women and men.
- Many people who have trichomoniasis don’t know it. The infection often has no symptoms.
- Most men with trichomoniasis do not have signs or symptoms; however, some men may temporarily have an irritation inside the penis, mild discharge, or slight burning after urination or ejaculation.
- Some women have signs or symptoms of infection which include a frothy, yellow-green vaginal discharge with a strong odor. The infection also may cause discomfort during intercourse and urination, as well as irritation and itching of the female genital area.
- Women are more likely than men to get symptoms.
- You can pass trichomoniasis to others without knowing it.
- Trichomoniasis is easy to treat and cure with an antibiotic
Slide 28 - PREVENTION
Slide 29 - Facts Teen Pregnancy
- Girls aged 15 to 19:
- 29 of every 1,000 women in this age group gave birth last year.
Slide 30 - PREGNANCY PREVENTION
- WAYS TO PREVENT PREGNANCY:
Slide 31 - Hormonal Methods
- When used properly hormonal contraceptives are 99% effective.
- The frequency of use varies depending on the type of method used. (every day, every 3 weeks, or every 3 months)
- A person interested in using one of these methods must first see a doctor to get a prescription.
- These methods provide no protection against STDs.
Slide 32 - Hormonal Methods
- Hormonal contraceptives work by preventing release of an egg from the ovary into the uterus, and may also make the uterus an “unfriendly” environment for sperm.
Slide 33 - Barrier Methods
- Barrier contraceptives prevent pregnancy by using a “barrier” that interferes with sperm movement. These methods do not use hormones, so they do not interfere with a female’s natural reproductive cycle.
- Common Types:
- Male Condom
- Female Condom
- Cervical Cap
Slide 34 - IUD
- The letters IUD stand for "intrauterine device." IUDs are small, "T-shaped" devices made of flexible plastic.
- A health care provider inserts an IUD into a woman's uterus to prevent pregnancy.
- There are two types of IUD available in the United States — copper (ParaGard) and hormonal (Mirena or Skyla).THESE ARE 99% EFFECTIVE.
- The ParaGard IUD contains copper. It is effective for 12 years.
- The hormonal IUD releases a small amount of progestin. There are two brands. Mirena is effective for five years. Skyla is slightly smaller and effective for three years.
Slide 35 - Emergency Contraception
- Can be used to prevent pregnancy up to five days (120 hours) after unprotected sex Two kinds of emergency contraception — morning-after pill and ParaGard IUD insertion
- Plan B is effective within 72 hours but others can be taken within 120 hours.
- Costs vary from $30 to $65 for the morning-after pill and $500 to $900 for IUD insertion
- 75 to 90 percent effective at preventing pregnancy.
Slide 36 - How do you know if you are even ready to go there?
- Sexual activity is not a decision that should be taken lightly.
- Really evaluate your relationship and potential consequences to determine if you are ready to take on the responsibility.
Slide 37 - Reproductive System Vocab Assessment
- You will create a quizlet for the reproductive vocab terms.
- Quizlet is an excellent study tool that most upper division students use for honors bio and history class.
- Once your quizlet is complete please email me the link to your quizlet so I can grade it on completion and accurate definitions.
- You can use any source you would like but it needs to be valid, credible, and reliable. If your definitions are incorrect because your sources was not good that is on you.
Slide 38 - How to use Quizlet
- Go to quizlet.com
- Sign up
- Create a username and password
- Create a set.
- Properly define all words listed in the libguide June 18th assessment and resource box.
Slide 39 - Quizlet Submission Due
- Quizlet submission due by noon June 19th.
- Share the quizlet by copying and pasting the share link in an email to me.
- This is will be helpful to prepare you for your final quiz on June 19th @ 2:00.