presentacion con video ppt. operations management [Recovered]

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presentacion con video ppt. operations management [Recovered]

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  1. Slide 1

    • Operations and Productivity
    • PowerPoint presentation to accompany
    • Heizer and Render
    • Operations Management, Eleventh Edition
    • Principles of Operations Management, Ninth Edition
    • PowerPoint slides by Jeff Heyl
    • 1
    • © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
  2. Outline

    Slide 2 - Outline

    • Global Company Profile: Hard Rock Cafe
    • What Is Operations Management?
    • Organizing to Produce Goods and Services
    • The Supply Chain
    • Why Study OM?
    • What Operations Managers Do
  3. Outline - Continued

    Slide 3 - Outline - Continued

    • The Heritage of Operations Management
    • Operations for Goods and Services
    • Growth of Services
    • Service Pay
    • The Productivity Challenge
    • Productivity Measurement
    • Productivity Variables
    • Productivity and the Service Sector
  4. Outline - Continued

    Slide 4 - Outline - Continued

    • New Challenges in Operations Management
    • Ethics, Social Responsibility, and Sustainability
  5. Learning Objectives

    Slide 5 - Learning Objectives

    • When you complete this chapter you should be able to:
    • Define operations management
    • Explain the distinction between goods and services
    • Explain the difference between production and productivity
  6. Learning Objectives

    Slide 6 - Learning Objectives

    • When you complete this chapter you should be able to:
    • Compute single-factor productivity
    • Compute multifactor productivity
    • Identify the critical variables in enhancing productivity
  7. Slide 7

    • Operations Management at Hard Rock Cafe
    • First opened in 1971
    • Now – 150 restaurants in over 53 countries
    • Rock music memorabilia
    • Creates value in the form of good food and entertainment
    • 3,500+ custom meals per day in Orlando
    • How does an item get on the menu?
    • Role of the Operations Manager
    • © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
  8. What Is Operations Management?

    Slide 8 - What Is Operations Management?

    • Production is the creation of goods and services
    • Operations management (OM) is the set of activities that create value in the form of goods and services by transforming inputs into outputs
  9. Organizing to Produce Goods and Services

    Slide 9 - Organizing to Produce Goods and Services

    • Essential functions: VIDEO DE Control en las Operaciones
    • Marketing – generates demand
    • Production/operations – creates the product
    • Finance/accounting – tracks how well the organization is doing, pays bills, collects the money
  10. Organizational Charts

    Slide 10 - Organizational Charts

    • Figure 1.1
  11. Organizational Charts

    Slide 11 - Organizational Charts

    • Figure 1.1
  12. Organizational Charts

    Slide 12 - Organizational Charts

    • Figure 1.1
  13. The Supply Chain

    Slide 13 - The Supply Chain

    • A global network of organizations and activities that supply a firm with goods and services
    • Members of the supply chain collaborate to achieve high levels of customer satisfaction, efficiency and competitive advantage.
    • Figure 1.2
    • Farmer Syrup Bottler Distributor Retailer
    • producer
  14. Why Study OM?

    Slide 14 - Why Study OM?

    • OM is one of three major functions of any organization, we want to study how people organize themselves for productive enterprise
    • We want (and need) to know how goods and services are produced
    • We want to understand what operations managers do
    • OM is such a costly part of an organization
  15. Options for Increasing Contribution

    Slide 15 - Options for Increasing Contribution

    • TABLE 1.1
    • MARKETING OPTION
    • FINANCE /ACCOUNTING OPTION
    • OM OPTION
    • CURRENT
    • INCREASE SALES REVENUE 50%
    • REDUCE FINANCE COSTS 50%
    • REDUCE PRODUCTION COSTS 20%
    • Sales
    • $100,000
    • $150,000
    • $100,000
    • $100,000
    • Cost of goods
    • –80,000
    • –120,000
    • –80,000
    • –64,000
    • Gross margin
    • 20,000
    • 30,000
    • 20,000
    • 36,000
    • Finance costs
    • –6,000
    • –6,000
    • –3,000
    • –6,000
    • Subtotal
    • 14,000
    • 24,000
    • 17,000
    • 30,000
    • Taxes at 25%
    • –3,500
    • –6,000
    • –4,200
    • –7,500
    • Contribution
    • $ 10,500
    • $ 18,000
    • $ 12,750
    • $ 22,500
  16. What Operations Managers Do

    Slide 16 - What Operations Managers Do

    • Basic Management Functions
    • Planning
    • Organizing
    • Staffing
    • Leading
    • Controlling
  17. Ten Strategic Decisions

    Slide 17 - Ten Strategic Decisions

    • TABLE 1.2
    • DECISION
    • CHAPTER(S)
    • 1. Design of goods and services
    • 5, Supplement 5
    • 2. Managing quality
    • 6, Supplement 6
    • 3. Process and capacity design
    • 7, Supplement 7
    • 4. Location strategy
    • 8
    • 5. Layout strategy
    • 9
    • 6. Human resources and job design
    • 10
    • 7. Supply-chain management
    • 11, Supplement 11
    • 8. Inventory management
    • 12, 14, 16
    • 9. Scheduling
    • 13, 15
    • 10. Maintenance
    • 17
  18. The Strategic Decisions

    Slide 18 - The Strategic Decisions

    • Design of goods and services
    • Defines what is required of operations
    • Product design determines quality, sustainability and human resources
    • Managing quality
    • Determine the customer’s quality expectations
    • Establish policies and procedures to identify and achieve that quality
    • Table 1.2 (cont.)
  19. The Strategic Decisions

    Slide 19 - The Strategic Decisions

    • Process and capacity design
    • How is a good or service produced?
    • Commits management to specific technology, quality, resources, and investment.
    • Location strategy
    • Nearness to customers, suppliers, and talent.
    • Considering costs, infrastructure, logistics, and government.
    • Table 1.2 (cont.)
  20. The Strategic Decisions

    Slide 20 - The Strategic Decisions

    • Layout strategy
    • Integrate capacity needs, personnel levels, technology, and inventory
    • Determine the efficient flow of materials, people, and information.
    • Human resources and job design
    • Recruit, motivate, and retain personnel with the required talent and skills.
    • Integral and expensive part of the total system design.
    • Table 1.2 (cont.)
  21. The Strategic Decisions

    Slide 21 - The Strategic Decisions

    • Supply-chain management
    • Integrate supply chain into the firm’s strategy.
    • Determine what is to be purchased, from whom, and under what conditions.
    • Inventory management
    • Inventory ordering and holding decisions.
    • Optimize considering customer satisfaction, supplier capability, and production schedules.
    • Table 1.2 (cont.)
  22. The Strategic Decisions

    Slide 22 - The Strategic Decisions

    • Scheduling
    • Determine and implement intermediate- and short-term schedules.
    • Utilize personnel and facilities while meeting customer demands.
    • Maintenance
    • Consider facility capacity, production demands, and personnel.
    • Maintain a reliable and stable process.
    • Table 1.2 (cont.)
  23. Where are the OM Jobs?

    Slide 23 - Where are the OM Jobs?

    • Technology/methods
    • Facilities/space utilization
    • Strategic issues
    • Response time
    • People/team development
    • Customer service
    • Quality
    • Cost reduction
    • Inventory reduction
    • Productivity improvement
  24. Opportunities

    Slide 24 - Opportunities

    • Figure 1.3
  25. Certifications

    Slide 25 - Certifications

    • APICS, the Association for Operations Management
    • American Society for Quality (ASQ)
    • Institute for Supply Management (ISM)
    • Project Management Institute (PMI)
    • Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals
    • Charter Institute of Purchasing and Supply (CIPS)
  26. Significant Events in OM

    Slide 26 - Significant Events in OM

    • Figure 1.4
  27. The Heritage of OM

    Slide 27 - The Heritage of OM

    • Division of labor (Adam Smith 1776; Charles Babbage 1852)
    • Standardized parts (Whitney 1800)
    • Scientific Management (Taylor 1881)
    • Coordinated assembly line (Ford/ Sorenson 1913)
    • Gantt charts (Gantt 1916)
    • Motion study (Frank and Lillian Gilbreth 1922)
    • Quality control (Shewhart 1924; Deming 1950)
  28. The Heritage of OM

    Slide 28 - The Heritage of OM

    • Computer (Atanasoff 1938)
    • CPM/PERT (DuPont 1957, Navy 1958)
    • Material requirements planning (Orlicky 1960)
    • Computer aided design (CAD 1970)
    • Flexible manufacturing system (FMS 1975)
    • Baldrige Quality Awards (1980)
    • Computer integrated manufacturing (1990)
    • Globalization (1992)
    • Internet (1995)
  29. Eli Whitney

    Slide 29 - Eli Whitney

    • Born 1765; died 1825
    • In 1798, received government contract to make 10,000 muskets
    • Showed that machine tools could make standardized parts to exact specifications
    • Musket parts could be used in any musket
  30. Frederick W. Taylor

    Slide 30 - Frederick W. Taylor

    • Born 1856; died 1915
    • Known as ‘father of scientific management’
    • In 1881, as chief engineer for Midvale Steel, studied how tasks were done
    • Began first motion and time studies
    • Created efficiency principles
  31. Taylor’s Principles

    Slide 31 - Taylor’s Principles

    • Management Should Take More Responsibility for:
    • Matching employees to right job
    • Providing the proper training
    • Providing proper work methods and tools
    • Establishing legitimate incentives for work to be accomplished
  32. Frank & Lillian Gilbreth

    Slide 32 - Frank & Lillian Gilbreth

    • Frank (1868-1924); Lillian (1878-1972)
    • Husband-and-wife engineering team
    • Further developed work measurement methods
    • Applied efficiency methods to their home and 12 children!
    • Book & Movie: “Cheaper by the Dozen,” “Bells on Their Toes”
  33. Born 1863; died 1947

    Slide 33 - Born 1863; died 1947

    • In 1903, created Ford Motor Company
    • In 1913, first used moving assembly line to make Model T
    • Unfinished product moved by conveyor past work station
    • Paid workers very well for 1911 ($5/day!)
    • Henry Ford
  34. W. Edwards Deming

    Slide 34 - W. Edwards Deming

    • Born 1900; died 1993
    • Engineer and physicist
    • Credited with teaching Japan quality control methods in post-WW2
    • Used statistics to analyze process
    • His methods involve workers in decisions
  35. Contributions From

    Slide 35 - Contributions From

    • Human factors
    • Industrial engineering
    • Management science
    • Biological science
    • Physical sciences
    • Information technology
  36. Operations for Goods and Services

    Slide 36 - Operations for Goods and Services

    • Manufacturers produce tangible product, services often intangible
    • Operations activities often very similar
    • Distinction not always clear
    • Few pure services
  37. Differences Between Goods and Services

    Slide 37 - Differences Between Goods and Services

    • TABLE 1.3
    • CHARACTERISTICS OF SERVICES
    • CHARACTERISTICS OF GOODS
    • Intangible: Ride in an airline seat
    • Tangible: The seat itself
    • Produced and consumed simultaneously: Beauty salon produces a haircut that is consumed as it is produced
    • Product can usually be kept in inventory (beauty care products)
    • Unique: Your investments and medical care are unique
    • Similar products produced (iPods)
    • High customer interaction: Often what the customer is paying for (consulting, education)
    • Limited customer involvement in production
    • Inconsistent product definition: Auto Insurance changes with age and type of car
    • Product standardized (iPhone)
    • Often knowledge based: Legal, education, and medical services are hard to automate
    • Standard tangible product tends to make automation feasible
    • Services dispersed: Service may occur at retail store, local office, house call, or via internet.
    • Product typically produced at a fixed facility
    • Quality may be hard to evaluate: Consulting, education, and medical services
    • Many aspects of quality for tangible products are easy to evaluate (strength of a bolt)
    • Reselling is unusual: Musical concert or medical care
    • Product often has some residual value
  38. U.S. Agriculture, Manufacturing, and Service Employment

    Slide 38 - U.S. Agriculture, Manufacturing, and Service Employment

    • Figure 1.5
    • 100 –
    • 80 –
    • 60 –
    • 40 –
    • 20 –
    • 0 –
    • Percent of Workforce
    • 1800
    • 1825
    • 1850
    • 1875
    • 1900
    • 1925
    • 1950
    • 1975
    • 2000
    • 2025 (est.)
    • |
    • |
    • |
    • |
    • |
    • |
    • |
    • |
    • |
    • Agriculture Services Manufacturing
  39. Organizations in Each Sector

    Slide 39 - Organizations in Each Sector

    • TABLE 1.4
    • SECTOR
    • EXAMPLE
    • PERCENT OF
    • ALL JOBS
    • Service Sector
    • Education, Legal, Medical, Other
    • Trade (retail, wholesale)
    • Utilities, Transportation
    • Professional and Business Services
    • Finance, Information, Real Estate
    • Food, Lodging, Entertainment
    • Public Administration
    • San Diego Zoo, Arnold Palmer Hospital
    • Walgreen's, Walmart, Nordstrom
    • Pacific Gas & Electric, American Airlines
    • Snelling and Snelling, Waste Management, Inc.
    • Citicorp, American Express, Prudential, Aetna
    • Olive Garden, Motel 6, Walt Disney
    • U.S., State of Alabama, Cook County
    • 13.2
    • 13.8
    • 3.3
    • 10.1
    • 21.0
    • 9.0
    • 15.5
    • 85.9
    • Manufacturing Sector
    • General Electric, Ford, U.S. Steel, Intel
    • 8.2
    • Construction Sector
    • Bechtel, McDermott
    • 4.1
    • Agriculture
    • King Ranch
    • 1.4
    • Mining Sector
    • Homestake Mining
    • .4
    • Grand Total
    • 100.0
  40. Service Pay

    Slide 40 - Service Pay

    • Perception that services are low-paying
    • 42% of service workers receive above average wages
    • 14 of 33 service industries pay below average
    • Retail trade pays only 61% of national average
    • Overall average wage is 96% of the average
  41. Productivity Challenge

    Slide 41 - Productivity Challenge

    • Productivity is the ratio of outputs (goods and services) divided by the inputs (resources such as labor and capital)
    • The objective is to improve productivity!
    • Important Note!
    • Production is a measure of output only and not a measure of efficiency
  42. Slide 42

    • Feedback loop
    • Outputs
    • Goods andservices
    • Transformation
    • The U.S. economic system transforms inputs to outputs at about an annual 2.5% increase in productivity per year. The productivity increase is the result of a mix of capital (38% of 2.5%), labor (10% of 2.5%), and management (52% of 2.5%).
    • The Economic System
    • Inputs
    • Labor,capital,management
    • Figure 1.6
  43. Improving Productivity at Starbucks

    Slide 43 - Improving Productivity at Starbucks

    • A team of 10 analysts continually look for ways to shave time. Some improvements:
    • Stop requiring signatures on credit card purchases under $25
    • Saved 8 seconds per transaction
    • Change the size of the ice scoop
    • Saved 14 seconds per drink
    • New espresso machines
    • Saved 12 seconds per shot
  44. Improving Productivity at Starbucks

    Slide 44 - Improving Productivity at Starbucks

    • A team of 10 analysts continually look for ways to shave time. Some improvements:
    • Stop requiring signatures on credit card purchases under $25
    • Saved 8 seconds per transaction
    • Change the size of the ice scoop
    • Saved 14 seconds per drink
    • New espresso machines
    • Saved 12 seconds per shot
    • Operations improvements have helped Starbucks increase yearly revenue per outlet by $250,000 to $1,000,000 in seven years.
    • Productivity has improved by 27%, or about 4.5% per year.
  45. Measure of process improvement

    Slide 45 - Measure of process improvement

    • Represents output relative to input
    • Only through productivity increases can our standard of living improve
    • Productivity
    • Productivity =
    • Units produced
    • Input used
  46. Productivity Calculations

    Slide 46 - Productivity Calculations

    • Productivity =
    • Units produced
    • Labor-hours used
    • = = 4 units/labor-hour
    • 1,000
    • 250
    • Labor Productivity
    • One resource input  single-factor productivity
  47. Multi-Factor Productivity

    Slide 47 - Multi-Factor Productivity

    • Output
    • Labor + Material + Energy + Capital + Miscellaneous
    • Productivity =
    • Also known as total factor productivity
    • Output and inputs are often expressed in dollars
    • Multiple resource inputs  multi-factor productivity
  48. Collins Title Productivity

    Slide 48 - Collins Title Productivity

    • Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/day
    • Payroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/day
    • Old System:
    • =
    • Old labor productivity
    • 8 titles/day
    • 32 labor-hrs
  49. Collins Title Productivity

    Slide 49 - Collins Title Productivity

    • Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/day
    • Payroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/day
    • Old System:
    • 8 titles/day
    • 32 labor-hrs
    • =
    • Old labor productivity
    • = .25 titles/labor-hr
  50. Collins Title Productivity

    Slide 50 - Collins Title Productivity

    • Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/day
    • Payroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/day
    • Old System:
    • 14 titles/day Overhead = $800/day
    • New System:
    • 8 titles/day
    • 32 labor-hrs
    • =
    • Old labor productivity
    • =
    • New labor productivity
    • = .25 titles/labor-hr
    • 14 titles/day
    • 32 labor-hrs
  51. Collins Title Productivity

    Slide 51 - Collins Title Productivity

    • Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/day
    • Payroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/day
    • Old System:
    • 14 titles/day Overhead = $800/day
    • New System:
    • 8 titles/day
    • 32 labor-hrs
    • =
    • Old labor productivity
    • = .25 titles/labor-hr
    • 14 titles/day
    • 32 labor-hrs
    • =
    • New labor productivity
    • = .4375 titles/labor-hr
  52. Collins Title Productivity

    Slide 52 - Collins Title Productivity

    • Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/day
    • Payroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/day
    • Old System:
    • 14 titles/day Overhead = $800/day
    • New System:
    • =
    • Old multifactor productivity
    • 8 titles/day
    • $640 + 400
  53. Collins Title Productivity

    Slide 53 - Collins Title Productivity

    • Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/day
    • Payroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/day
    • Old System:
    • 14 titles/day Overhead = $800/day
    • New System:
    • 8 titles/day
    • $640 + 400
    • =
    • Old multifactor productivity
    • = .0077 titles/dollar
  54. Collins Title Productivity

    Slide 54 - Collins Title Productivity

    • Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/day
    • Payroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/day
    • Old System:
    • 14 titles/day Overhead = $800/day
    • New System:
    • 8 titles/day
    • $640 + 400
    • =
    • Old multifactor productivity
    • =
    • New multifactor productivity
    • = .0077 titles/dollar
    • 14 titles/day
    • $640 + 800
  55. Collins Title Productivity

    Slide 55 - Collins Title Productivity

    • Staff of 4 works 8 hrs/day 8 titles/day
    • Payroll cost = $640/day Overhead = $400/day
    • Old System:
    • 14 titles/day Overhead = $800/day
    • New System:
    • 8 titles/day
    • $640 + 400
    • 14 titles/day
    • $640 + 800
    • =
    • Old multifactor productivity
    • =
    • New multifactor productivity
    • = .0077 titles/dollar
    • = .0097 titles/dollar
  56. Measurement Problems

    Slide 56 - Measurement Problems

    • Quality may change while the quantity of inputs and outputs remains constant
    • External elements may cause an increase or decrease in productivity
    • Precise units of measure may be lacking
  57. Productivity Variables

    Slide 57 - Productivity Variables

    • Labor - contributes about 10% of the annual increase
    • Capital - contributes about 38% of the annual increase
    • Management - contributes about 52% of the annual increase
  58. Key Variables for Improved Labor Productivity

    Slide 58 - Key Variables for Improved Labor Productivity

    • Basic education appropriate for the labor force
    • Diet of the labor force
    • Social overhead that makes labor available
    • Challenge is in maintaining and enhancing skills in the midst of rapidly changing technology and knowledge
  59. Labor Skills

    Slide 59 - Labor Skills

    • About half of the 17-year-olds in the U.S. cannot correctly answer questions of this type
    • Figure 1.7
  60. Capital

    Slide 60 - Capital

    • 10
    • 8
    • 6
    • 4
    • 2
    • 0
    • Percent increase in productivity
    • Percentage investment
    • 10 15 20 25 30 35
  61. Management

    Slide 61 - Management

    • Ensures labor and capital are effectively used to increase productivity
    • Use of knowledge
    • Application of technologies
    • Knowledge societies
    • Difficult challenge
  62. Productivity and the Service Sector

    Slide 62 - Productivity and the Service Sector

    • Typically labor intensive
    • Frequently focused on unique individual attributes or desires
    • Often an intellectual task performed by professionals
    • Often difficult to mechanize and automate
    • Often difficult to evaluate for quality
  63. Productivity at Taco Bell

    Slide 63 - Productivity at Taco Bell

    • Improvements:
    • Revised the menu
    • Designed meals for easy preparation
    • Shifted some preparation to suppliers
    • Efficient layout and automation
    • Training and employee empowerment
    • New water and energy saving grills
  64. Productivity at Taco Bell

    Slide 64 - Productivity at Taco Bell

    • Improvements:
    • Results:
    • Preparation time cut to 8 seconds
    • Management span of control increased from 5 to 30
    • In-store labor cut by 15 hours/day
    • Floor space reduced by more than 50%
    • Stores average 164 seconds/customer from drive-up to pull-out
    • Water- and energy-savings grills conserve 300 million gallons of water and 200 million KwH of electricity each year
    • Green-inspired cooking method saves 5,800 restaurants $17 million per year
  65. New Challenges in OM

    Slide 65 - New Challenges in OM

    • Global focus
    • Supply-chain partnering
    • Sustainability
    • Rapid product development
    • Mass customization
    • Just-in-time performance
    • Empowered employees
  66. Ethics, Social Responsibility, and Sustainability

    Slide 66 - Ethics, Social Responsibility, and Sustainability

    • Challenges facing operations managers:
    • Develop and produce safe, high-quality green products
    • Train, retrain, and motivate employees in a safe workplace
    • Honor stakeholder commitments
  67. Slide 67

    • All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.
    • Printed in the United States of America.