NCCER Electrical L2/M3

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NCCER Electrical L2/M3

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  1. Objectives

    Slide 2 - Objectives

    • When trainees have completed this lesson, they should be able to do the following:
    • 1. Describe the characteristics of light.
    • 2. Recognize the different kinds of lamps and explain the advantages and disadvantages of each type:
    • • Incandescent • Fluorescent
    • • Halogen • High-intensity discharge (HID)
    • 3. Properly select and install various lamps in lighting fixtures.
    • 4. Recognize and describe the installation requirements for various types of lighting fixtures:
    • • Surface-mounted • Suspended
    • • Recessed • Track-mounted
    • 5. Recognize ballasts and describe their use in fluorescent and HID lighting fixtures.
    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
  2. Objectives and Performance Tasks

    Slide 3 - Objectives and Performance Tasks

    • 6. Explain the relationship of Kelvin temperature to the color of light produced by a lamp.
    • 7. Recognize basic occupancy sensors, photoelectric sensors, and timers used to control lighting circuits and describe how each device operates.
    • Performance Tasks
    • 1. Read and interpret information given in lamp manufacturers’ catalogs for one or more selected lamps.
    • 2. Properly select and install lamps into lighting fixtures.
    • 3. Install one or more of the following lighting fixtures and their associated lamps:
    • • Surface-mounted • Suspended
    • • Recessed • Track-mounted
    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
  3. 1.0.0 – 2.0.0

    Slide 4 - 1.0.0 – 2.0.0

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Introduction; Human Vision
    • • Appropriate lighting is essential for safety and also helps to improve efficiency and reduce eyestrain.
    • • The structure of the human eye is similar to a camera. Like a camera, it responds best to well-lit, high-contrast lighting conditions.
  4. 1.0.0 – 2.0.0

    Slide 5 - 1.0.0 – 2.0.0

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Visual Angle
  5. 3.0.0 – 3.1.0

    Slide 6 - 3.0.0 – 3.1.0

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Light Characteristics
    • • Incident light is direct light from the sun or another source.
    • • When light strikes an object, it can be absorbed, refracted, or reflected. Absorbed light is dissipated as heat. Reflected light bounces back at a 90-degree angle. Refracted light bounces off in a different direction.
  6. 3.0.0 – 3.1.0

    Slide 7 - 3.0.0 – 3.1.0

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Percentages of Light Reflected by Common Surface Materials
    • The color of walls, ceilings, and floors and their degree of reflection are major considerations in the design of effective lighting systems.
  7. 3.2.0

    Slide 8 - 3.2.0

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Light Colors
    • • Light is a form of radiant energy.
    • • Visible light exists in a fairly narrow range of wavelengths, with each wavelength representing a different color. White light is made up of all the wavelengths that create the different colors.
  8. 3.2.0

    Slide 9 - 3.2.0

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Light Being Separated into its Component Colors by Refraction
    • • When white light is refracted through a prism, it splits into the colors of the rainbow.
    • • All objects absorb light of different wavelengths in different proportions.
  9. 4.0.0 – 4.5.0

    Slide 10 - 4.0.0 – 4.5.0

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Lamps
    • • Three common categories of lamps include incandescent, fluorescent, and high-intensity discharge (HID).
    • • Incandescent lamps produce light by passing an electric current through a filament. Incandescent lamps are very inefficient and have been phased out of production as of January 2014.
  10. 4.0.0 – 4.5.0

    Slide 11 - 4.0.0 – 4.5.0

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Think About It: Energy Consumed by Incandescent Lamps
    • How much of the energy consumed by incandescent lamps is dissipated as heat?
    • 25%
    • 50%
    • 75%
    • 90%
  11. 4.0.0 – 4.5.0

    Slide 12 - 4.0.0 – 4.5.0

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Incandescent Lamp Shapes
  12. 4.0.0 – 4.5.0

    Slide 13 - 4.0.0 – 4.5.0

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Examples of Incandescent Lamp Filament Forms
    • • Filaments are identified by letter and number combinations. The letter represents the shape of the filament.
    • • Common letters include C (coiled), CC (coiled coil), and S (straight).
  13. 4.0.0 – 4.5.0

    Slide 14 - 4.0.0 – 4.5.0

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Examples of Incandescent Lamp Bases
  14. 4.0.0 – 4.5.0

    Slide 15 - 4.0.0 – 4.5.0

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Relationship of Rated Lamp Voltage to Watts, Lumens, and Lamp Life
    • • The supply voltage has a significant impact on incandescent lamp life.
    • • The lamp wattage indicates how much energy the lamp consumes to produce its rated light output.
    • • Lumens are a measure of light output. The greater the number of lumens, the brighter the light.
  15. 4.0.0 – 4.5.0

    Slide 16 - 4.0.0 – 4.5.0

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Basic Tungsten Halogen Lamp
    • • Halogen lamps are more efficient than incandescent lamps and also have a greater service life and improved light quality.
    • • However, halogen lamps burn hot and produce more ultraviolet radiation than other lamp types.
  16. 4.0.0 – 4.5.0

    Slide 17 - 4.0.0 – 4.5.0

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Basic Fluorescent Lamp
    • • Fluorescent lamps are low-pressure mercury discharge lamps.
    • • They offer high efficiency and are available in an increasing variety of shapes and sizes.
  17. 4.0.0 – 4.5.0

    Slide 18 - 4.0.0 – 4.5.0

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Typical Fluorescent Lamps
    • • Fluorescent lamps require a high-voltage surge to establish an arc in the mercury vapor and a ballast to regulate the current flow through the lamp.
    • • There are three classes of fluorescent lamps: preheat, rapid start, and instant start.
  18. 4.0.0 – 4.5.0

    Slide 19 - 4.0.0 – 4.5.0

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Compact Fluorescent Lamps
    • • Compact fluorescent lamps fit into standard screw-in lamp sockets and are currently the most popular replacement lamps for incandescent lamps in all types of lighting fixtures (luminaires).
    • • However, light-emitting diode (LED) lamps are rapidly gaining popularity.
  19. 4.0.0 – 4.5.0

    Slide 20 - 4.0.0 – 4.5.0

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Typical Fluorescent Lamp Holders
    • Lamp holders are available with various pin configurations to allow for various spacings and mounting methods in fixtures.
  20. 4.0.0 – 4.5.0

    Slide 21 - 4.0.0 – 4.5.0

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Typical High-Intensity Discharge Lamps
    • • High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps provide both long life and high efficiency.
    • • They are similar to fluorescent lamps in that they produce light by exciting gases in a pressurized bulb.
  21. 4.0.0 – 4.5.0

    Slide 22 - 4.0.0 – 4.5.0

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Basic Metal Halide Lamp
    • • Metal halide lamps combine mercury and metal halide atoms under high pressure.
    • • Metal halide lamps can present a fire or explosion hazard if the arc tube is ruptured, and must be protected with a containment barrier or protective socket.
  22. 4.0.0 – 4.5.0

    Slide 23 - 4.0.0 – 4.5.0

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Lamp Color Rendering and Color Temperature Characteristics
    • • The color rendering index (CRI) is a scale that indicates how natural objects appear under artificial light. It ranges from 0 (least natural) to 100 (most natural).
    • • Lamps are also rated by color temperature in kelvins (K): at or below 3,000k is warm, 3,500k is moderate, and 4,100k and above is cool.
    • Performance Task
    • This session will conclude with trainees reading and interpreting the information given in lamp manufacturers’ catalogs, and then selecting and installing lamps into lighting fixtures.
    • Next Session…
    • Ballasts
  23. 5.0.0 – 5.1.6

    Slide 24 - 5.0.0 – 5.1.6

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Ballasts
    • • Fluorescent and HID lamps require a ballast to provide the voltage surge required to spike an arc between the electrodes.
    • • Ballasts also regulate current and compensate for voltage variations.
  24. 5.0.0 – 5.1.6

    Slide 25 - 5.0.0 – 5.1.6

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Basic Fluorescent Lighting Fixture Circuits
    • • In preheat circuits, the lamp electrodes are heated before application of the high voltage across the lamp(s).
    • • Rapid-start lamps allow one second for the electrodes to heat and are the most common type of fluorescent lamp.
    • • Instant-start lamps are not preheated.
  25. 5.0.0 – 5.1.6

    Slide 26 - 5.0.0 – 5.1.6

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Dimmer Circuit Using Dimming Ballast for Rapid-Start Lamp
    • • Special ballasts are required for use with dimmer circuits.
    • • Electronic dimming ballasts are more efficient and less bulky than magnetic types.
  26. 5.2.0 – 5.2.4

    Slide 27 - 5.2.0 – 5.2.4

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • HID Lighting Fixture Ballasts
    • • The voltage surge required to strike the arc in an HID lamp can be provided by the ballast or a separate ignitor circuit.
    • • The circuit shown here provides a pulse of 2,500V to initiate the lamp arc.
  27. 5.2.0 – 5.2.4

    Slide 28 - 5.2.0 – 5.2.4

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • HID Ballast and Lamp
    • • There are three types of HID ballasts: linear, nonregulating circuit ballasts; constant-wattage autotransformer ballasts; and three-coil ballasts. Three-coil ballasts use isolated windings to provide operating stability and offer the best performance of the three types.
    • • Some ballasts allow the use of different supply voltages, such as 120V, 208V, 240V, and 277V.
  28. 5.2.0 – 5.2.4

    Slide 29 - 5.2.0 – 5.2.4

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Simplified HID Ballast Circuits
    • Next Session…
    • Lighting Fixtures
  29. 6.0.0 – 6.5.0

    Slide 30 - 6.0.0 – 6.5.0

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • • The word lamp is used to indicate a replaceable bulb. A lighting fixture or luminaire includes the complete lighting unit, including the lamp, its base, and the wiring required to connect it to the circuit.
    • • There are four basic fixture installation methods: surface-mounted, recessed, suspended, and track-mounted.
    • Lighting Fixtures
  30. 6.0.0 – 6.5.0

    Slide 31 - 6.0.0 – 6.5.0

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Surface-Mounted Indoor Wall Lighting Fixtures
  31. 6.0.0 – 6.5.0

    Slide 32 - 6.0.0 – 6.5.0

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Surface-Mounted Outdoor Wall Fixture
  32. 6.0.0 – 6.5.0

    Slide 33 - 6.0.0 – 6.5.0

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Typical Recessed Lighting Fixtures
    • • Recessed fixtures have the main body of the luminaire mounted in the wall or ceiling. Only the related lens/diffuser are visible on the finished ceiling or wall surface.
    • • Incandescent recessed fixtures generate considerable heat and may present a fire hazard if not installed in accordance with NEC® requirements.
  33. 6.0.0 – 6.5.0

    Slide 34 - 6.0.0 – 6.5.0

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Typical Recessed Fluorescent Troffers
    • • Fluorescent troffers are installed above a suspended ceiling.
    • • They are typically available in 2' by 4' or 2' by 2' units for use with two, three, or four lamps.
  34. 6.0.0 – 6.5.0

    Slide 35 - 6.0.0 – 6.5.0

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Fluorescent Troffer Mounted in a Suspended Ceiling
    • Grid-type troffers are designed for installation in grid T-bar suspended ceilings.
  35. 6.0.0 – 6.5.0

    Slide 36 - 6.0.0 – 6.5.0

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Suspended Lighting Fixtures
    • • Suspended lighting fixtures include chandeliers and pendant units.
    • • They are secured to the ceiling using chains, aircraft cords, or metal rods.
  36. 6.0.0 – 6.5.0

    Slide 37 - 6.0.0 – 6.5.0

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Track Lighting
    • • Track units include a track, an electrical feed box, and two or more fixtures that can be positioned as desired along the track.
    • • Track lighting can be either ceiling-mounted or wall-mounted.
  37. 7.0.0

    Slide 38 - 7.0.0

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Lighting Fixture Installation
  38. 7.0.0

    Slide 39 - 7.0.0

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Example of Lighting Fixture Installation Instructions
  39. 7.1.0

    Slide 40 - 7.1.0

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Mechanical Installation of Surface-Mounted Lighting Fixture
    • • The size and weight of the fixture determine the outlet box to be used.
    • • When mounting fixtures that weigh more than 50 pounds, the NEC® requires that the fixture be supported independently of the box or mounted to a listed outlet box marked with the maximum weight to be supported.
  40. 7.1.1

    Slide 41 - 7.1.1

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Drum, Globe, Sconce, and Similar Lighting Fixtures
    • • Globe, sconce, and similar fixtures are typically mounted directly to the outlet box with no additional support.
    • • Some lamps mount directly to the ears of the outlet box, while others connect to mounting bars attached to a threaded stud in the box.
  41. 7.1.2

    Slide 42 - 7.1.2

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Fluorescent Lighting Fixtures
    • • Some lightweight fluorescent fixtures can be mounted directly to an outlet box, while others connect to a mounting bar inside the housing.
    • • Heavier fluorescent fixtures are supported using toggle bolts, anchors, or other fasteners connected to ceiling joists or other structural members.
  42. 7.1.3

    Slide 43 - 7.1.3

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Chandeliers and Pendants
  43. 7.1.4

    Slide 44 - 7.1.4

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Chandeliers and Pendants
    • • NEC Section 422.18 covers the installation requirements for ceiling fans.
    • • Fans weighing more than 35 pounds must be mounted independently of the outlet box or the box must be listed for such use and marked with the maximum weight to be supported.
  44. 7.1.5

    Slide 45 - 7.1.5

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Outdoor Lighting Fixtures
    • • Outdoor lighting fixtures must be listed for such use and provide watertight connections.
    • • Special washers and gaskets must be installed to protect the wiring within the fixture.
  45. 7.1.5

    Slide 46 - 7.1.5

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Mechanical Installation of Recessed Lighting Fixtures
  46. 7.2.1

    Slide 47 - 7.2.1

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Incandescent, Compact Fluorescent, and HID Recessed Fixtures
    • • Recessed fixtures typically include bar hangers for attachment to wooden joists or suspended ceiling members.
    • • Always use the trim supplied with a given fixture. Mismatching may result in a fire hazard and is prohibited by the NEC®.
  47. 7.2.2

    Slide 48 - 7.2.2

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Fluorescent Troffers
    • Fluorescent troffers are installed using plaster frame kits or flange kits used to trim out a ceiling opening.
  48. 7.2.2

    Slide 49 - 7.2.2

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • What’s wrong with this picture?
  49. 7.2.2

    Slide 50 - 7.2.2

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Typical Clips Used to Fasten Lay-In Troffers to Suspended Ceiling Grid Systems
    • • All lighting fixtures must be securely fastened to the main ceiling framing members using bolts, screws, rivets, or listed clips.
    • • A variety of locking clips are used to secure lay-in troffers to suspended ceiling grid systems.
  50. 7.3.0

    Slide 51 - 7.3.0

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Mechanical Installation of Suspended Lighting Fixtures
    • A variety of hangers and rods are used to secure suspended fixtures to the building ceiling or beam structure.
  51. 7.3.0

    Slide 52 - 7.3.0

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Typical Methods of Support for Suspended Fluorescent Fixtures
    • Fluorescent fixtures can be suspended at the desired height using supporting rods, cables, or chains.
  52. 7.3.0

    Slide 53 - 7.3.0

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Examples of Fixture Supports for Commercial/Industrial Applications
  53. 7.4.0

    Slide 54 - 7.4.0

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Mechanical Installation of Track Lighting Fixtures
  54. 7.4.0

    Slide 55 - 7.4.0

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Typical End Feed and Floating Canopy Track Connectors
    • • Track lighting must be capable of supporting the maximum number of fixtures that can be installed.
    • • Track must be supported at a minimum of two points if less than four feet in length and at the manufacturer-specified intervals for longer lengths.
    • Performance Task
    • This session will conclude with trainees installing various fixtures and their associated lamps.
  55. 7.5.0 – 7.5.1

    Slide 56 - 7.5.0 – 7.5.1

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Electrical Connection of Lighting Fixtures
    • • NEC Section 300.14 requires at least six inches of free conductor length at each outlet or junction box where it emerges from its cable sheath or raceway.
    • • When connecting a fixture, connect the bare grounding wire to one end of a grounding jumper and the other end to the box using a grounding clip or the box grounding screw.
  56. 7.5.2

    Slide 57 - 7.5.2

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Modular System Wiring
    • • Modular wiring systems offer an alternative to conventional hard wiring.
    • • An outlet or junction box is installed as the starting point and a feeder adapter is wired or mounted in place. The rest of the wiring is installed using connectors.
  57. 8.0.0 – 8.1.0

    Slide 58 - 8.0.0 – 8.1.0

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Controls for Lighting
    • • Lighting controls can be installed to conserve energy and include occupancy sensors, photosensors, and timing devices.
    • • Occupancy sensors are used to automatically turn lights on/off in response to motion, heat, or sound. A typical application is a wall switch sensor used to turn on restroom lights when the room is occupied.
  58. 8.2.0

    Slide 59 - 8.2.0

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Photosensors
    • • Photosensors are commonly used in outdoor lighting to turn lights on at dusk.
    • • Some units include infrared sensors for use as motion detectors.
  59. 8.3.0

    Slide 60 - 8.3.0

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Timers
    • • Timers are used to turn lights on in response to scheduled sequences of events.
    • • Units range from simple clock timers used with holiday lighting to complex programmable models for multiple switching operations.
  60. 9.0.0

    Slide 61 - 9.0.0

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Energy Management Systems
    • • Energy management systems can be programmed to provide both lighting and HVAC equipment control.
    • • An EMS typically contains a computer or control processor, scheduling software, sensors, and a communication system.
  61. 9.0.0

    Slide 62 - 9.0.0

    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
    • Simplified Wiring Diagrams of Relay-Controlled Lighting Fixture Circuits
    • Next Session…
    • Wrap Up
  62. Wrap Up

    Slide 63 - Wrap Up

    • 3-2-1
    • 3 – Write 3 important things learned during class
    • 2 – Write 2 questions you have about the material
    • 1 – Write 1 thought you had about the material
    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14
  63. Next Session…

    Slide 64 - Next Session…

    • MODULE EXAM
    • Review the complete module to prepare for the module exam. Complete the Module Review as a study aid.
    • Electrical Lighting 26203-14