Imagery and Relaxation Responses

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Imagery and Relaxation Responses

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  1. Mary Kerutis, RN

    Slide 2 - Mary Kerutis, RN

    • Holistic Nursing
    • Rivier University
    • Imagery and Relaxation Responses
  2. Slide 3

    • Defining Imagery and Relaxation Response
    • Where to Begin & Where are we Now (History & Evolution)
    • Research Studies
    • Patient Experience (Prepare for Surgery, Heal Faster)
    • Relating to Holistic Nursing and its core values
    • Educational & Certification Requirements
    • Considerations when utilizing Imagery
    • Guided Imagery relaxation video/learning activity
    • Professional Organizations
    • What is Imagery and Relaxation Response?
  3. Imagery- “ The foundation of body-mind medicine and is the essential  and activating element in the clinical use of relaxation therapy, meditation, biofeedback, and hypnosis”

    Slide 4 - Imagery- “ The foundation of body-mind medicine and is the essential and activating element in the clinical use of relaxation therapy, meditation, biofeedback, and hypnosis”

    • Imagery is synonymous with...
    • A lived experience utilizing all of our senses-visual, tactile, aural, smell and kinesthetic
    • Imagery brings the natural powers of the mind into the process of health and healing
    • What Imagery is not …
    • Defining Imagery
    • (Freeman,2009)
    • (Dossey& Keegan,2013, p.328)
  4. Relaxation Response- “An alert, hypokinetic process of decreased sympathetic nervous system arousal that may be achieved in a number of ways, including through breathing exercises, relaxation and imagery exercises, biofeedback, and prayer.”

    Slide 5 - Relaxation Response- “An alert, hypokinetic process of decreased sympathetic nervous system arousal that may be achieved in a number of ways, including through breathing exercises, relaxation and imagery exercises, biofeedback, and prayer.”

    • Relaxation- “ Is the absence of physical, mental, and emotional tension; the opposite of Canon’s fight-or-flight response .”
    • Imagery and Relaxation Response are inter-related.
    • Defining Relaxation Response
    • (Freeman,2009)
    • (Dossey& Keegan,2013, p.32
  5. The basis of imagery is traced to ancient cultures.  American Indian tribes, Christianity, Judaism, and Eastern Doctrines.  Definitions and techniques vary among the practitioners related their specific theoretical background of behaviorist, psychoanalyst, or Eastern medicine philosophies.

    Slide 6 - The basis of imagery is traced to ancient cultures. American Indian tribes, Christianity, Judaism, and Eastern Doctrines. Definitions and techniques vary among the practitioners related their specific theoretical background of behaviorist, psychoanalyst, or Eastern medicine philosophies.

    • Variations of Terminology
    • Variations in Techniques
    • Common thread and variations focus on same goal:
    • Process of purposeful use of mental images to achieve a
    • desired therapeutic goal.
    • Where to begin (History)
    • Journal of holistic NURSING, Vol 17 No. 4 December 1999 317-330
  6. Slide 7

    • Edmund Jacobson – 1905
    • “Originator of JRPT (Jacobson’s Progressive Relaxation Therapy)
    • “ a lengthy method of becoming aware of
    • and relaxing all the muscles in the body”
    • one at a time
    • Herbert Benson (and colleagues @ Harvard)
    • Coined term “Relaxation Response”
    • Cited four basic elements that are common to all relaxation response practices:
    • A quiet environment
    • A mental device
    • A passive attitude
    • A comfortable position
    • Evolution of Imagery
    • Dossey & Keegan (2013) p.333
    • Freeman , 2009
  7. Dr. David Bresler, PhD, LAc

    Slide 8 - Dr. David Bresler, PhD, LAc

    • President of Academy for Guided Imagery
    • Internationally recognized as one of 1st scientists to study, research and teach Guide Imagery and other mind /body approaches.
    • Created and Directed UCLA Pain Control Unit
    • 1st multi-disciplinary, university-based chronic pain program in America utilizing techniques of acupuncture and guided imagery.
    • Dr. Martin L. Rossman, MD
    • Cofounder of Academy for Guided Imagery
    • Founder of The Healing Mind.org
    • Author of Fighting Cancer from Within (Holt NY, 2003)
    • <http://breslercenter.com/page4/page4.html
    • Where we are nowPioneers and leaders today
    • <http://breslercenter.com/page4/page4.html
    • http://www.thehealingmind.org/
  8. Study on the effectiveness of Guided Imagery on Levels of Pain and Depression in Patients Diagnosed with Fibromyalgia  Onieva-Zafra M.D. (2015)

    Slide 9 - Study on the effectiveness of Guided Imagery on Levels of Pain and Depression in Patients Diagnosed with Fibromyalgia Onieva-Zafra M.D. (2015)

    • Outcomes of Guided Imagery in Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy for Breast Cancer. Serra et al. (2012)
    • Research Results
    • Guided Visual Imagery on Chemotherapy-induced anxiety and Nausea-vomiting Karagozoglu s. (2012)
  9. Peggy Huddleston

    Slide 10 - Peggy Huddleston

    • A graduate of Harvard Divinity School
    • Writing and Clinical work focus on the ways emotion and human spirit enhance healing.
    • Research Shows Prepare for Surgery, heal Faster helps people:
    • Reduce anxiety before surgery
    • Use 23-60% less pain medication
    • Heal faster and increase patient satisfaction
    • Is recommended at hospitals including:
    • St. Joseph, Nashua New Hampshire
    • Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School teaching hospital
    • NYU Langone Medical Center in New York
    • Prepare for Surgery, Heal Faster
    • www.HealFaster.com
  10. The Lahey Clinic, a Tufts University Medical School

    Slide 11 - The Lahey Clinic, a Tufts University Medical School

    • 56 patients having colorectal surgery
    • Significantly less anxiety
    • Leaving hospital 1.6 days sooner
    • Hospital cost savings of $3,200 per patient
    • Use 60% less medication on second day home
    • The New England Baptist, a Tufts University Medical School
    • 44 patients having total knee joint replacement
    • Significantly less anxiety
    • Leaving hospital 1.3 days sooner
    • Prepare for Surgery, Heal FasterThe Research
  11. Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, a Harvard Medical School

    Slide 12 - Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, a Harvard Medical School

    • 23 hospitalized patients not having surgery
    • Used less medication for anxiety
    • Significant decrease in heart rate
    • Kaiser Permanente Santa Clara Medical Center
    • Patient Satisfaction increased by 12% in every measured category
    • Prepare for Surgery, Heal FasterThe Research
  12. Patient Experience

    Slide 13 - Patient Experience

    • http://www.healfaster.com/videos.html
  13. Guided Imagery/Holistic Nursing

    Slide 14 - Guided Imagery/Holistic Nursing

    • Core Values
    • Philosophy, theory and ethics
    • Holistic caring process
    • Holistic communication, therapeutic environment, and cultural diversity
    • Holistic education and research
    • Holistic nurse self-care
    • Guide Imagery/Holistic Nursing and its core values
    • Dossey & Keegan (2013) p.65
  14. Requirements for Certification:

    Slide 15 - Requirements for Certification:

    • Academy for Guided Imagery's 150­ hour training curriculum
    • Education & Certification
    • Who Can Enroll in Certification Training ?
    • Licensed HealthCare Professionals
    • Health Educators
    • Life Coaches and Clergy
    • Other Professionals
    • http://www.acadgi.com/certificationtraining/whocanenroll/index.html
  15.      Fears in Imagery Work

    Slide 16 - Fears in Imagery Work

    • Nothing Will Happen
    • Too Much Will Happen
    • It will be done Wrong
    • Considerations when Utilizing Imagery
    • Dossey & Keegan (2013) p.374
  16.      Safety Considerations

    Slide 17 - Safety Considerations

    • No serious side effects reported in scientific literature, theoretically intense inward focusing may cause pre-existing psychological problems or personality disorders to surface
    • Guided Imagery techniques not to be attempted while operating machinery or doing activities requiring strict attention.
    • May trigger physical symptoms that can be brought about by stress, anxiety, or emotional upset.
    • Caution in use with people with history of trauma or abuse
    • Should not be relied upon as a sole therapy for potentially serious medical problems
    • Considerations when Utilizing Imagery
    • Dossey & Keegan (2013) p.374
  17. Participation activityGuided Imagery

    Slide 18 - Participation activityGuided Imagery

    • www.relaxforawhile.com
  18. Academy for Guided Imagery

    Slide 19 - Academy for Guided Imagery

    • www.academyforimagery.com
    • Imagery International
    • A Professional Association for Guided Imagery Practitioners
    • http://imageryinternational.org/
    • American Holistic Nurses Association
    • http://www.ahna.org/
    • National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health
    • https://nccih.nih.gov/
    • Professional Organizations
  19. I hope you found this presentation on Guided Imagery enjoyable and interesting, I look forward to hearing your responses to the discussion questions posted.

    Slide 20 - I hope you found this presentation on Guided Imagery enjoyable and interesting, I look forward to hearing your responses to the discussion questions posted.

    • Thank You!
  20. Ackerman, C., & Turkoski, B. (2000). Using guided imagery to reduce pain and anxiety. Home Healthcare Nurse, 18(8), 524-530

    Slide 21 - Ackerman, C., & Turkoski, B. (2000). Using guided imagery to reduce pain and anxiety. Home Healthcare Nurse, 18(8), 524-530

    • Bazzo, D., & Moeller, R. (1999). Imagine this! Infinite uses of guided imagery in women's health. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 17(4), 317-330.
    • Dossey, B. & Keegan, L. (2013). Holistic Nursing: A Handbook for Practice (6th Ed.) Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
    • Ernst, E., Pittler, M., & Wider, B. (2007). Therapies. In Complementary Therapies for Pain Management: An Evidence-Based Approach (pp. 132-133). Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Elsevier/Mosby
    • Freeman,L. (2009). Mosby’s Complementary & Alternative Medicine: A Research-Based Approach (3rd Ed.) Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Elsevier/Mosby
    • References
  21. Karagozoglu, S., Tekyasar, F., & Yilmaz, F. A. (2013). Effects of music therapy and guided visual imagery on chemotherapy-induced anxiety and nausea-vomiting. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 22(1/2), 39-50. doi:10.1111/jocn.12030

    Slide 22 - Karagozoglu, S., Tekyasar, F., & Yilmaz, F. A. (2013). Effects of music therapy and guided visual imagery on chemotherapy-induced anxiety and nausea-vomiting. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 22(1/2), 39-50. doi:10.1111/jocn.12030

    • Serra, D., Parris, C. R., Carper, E., Homel, P., Fleishman, S. B., Harrison, L. B., & Chadha, M. (2012). Outcomes of Guided Imagery in Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy for Breast Cancer. Clinical Journal Of Oncology Nursing, 16(6), 617-623
    • Wilson, H. K., Scult, M., Wilcher, M., Chudnofsky, R., Malloy, L., Drewel, E., & ... Denninger, J. W. (2015). Teacher-led Relaxation Response Curriculum in an Urban High School: Impact on Student Behavioral Health and Classroom Environment. Advances In Mind-Body Medicine, 29(Kang, Y. (2010). [Mind-body approach in the area of preventive medicine: focusing on relaxation and meditation for stress management].
    • References (Cont.)
  22. Wood, D., Bratman, S., & Randall,B. (2012). “Pain Management.” Complementary &Alternative Medicine. (Vol. 3) (Pp.1004-1007, 1134-1137). Ed. Richard P. Capriccioso and Paul Moglia. Ipswich, Massachusetts: Salem Press

    Slide 23 - Wood, D., Bratman, S., & Randall,B. (2012). “Pain Management.” Complementary &Alternative Medicine. (Vol. 3) (Pp.1004-1007, 1134-1137). Ed. Richard P. Capriccioso and Paul Moglia. Ipswich, Massachusetts: Salem Press

    • http://www.thehealingmind.org/
    • http://breslercenter.com/page4/page4.html
    • References (Cont.)