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Slide 1  EPSY 5210 Ed. Statistics
 Instructor: Hector Ponce
 Background:
 Research Interest
 Experience with Quantitative Analysis
 Additional comments

Slide 2  In the Beginning
 Necessary Information

Slide 3  What’s statistics?
 The science of organizing and analyzing information.
 Inference
 To find:
 Areas under the bell curve (e.g., z test)
 Comparing means (i.e., ttest, and ANOVA)
 Correlations (Pearson r)
 Compare proportions (chi square)

Slide 4  Parameters/statistics
 Mean (average):
 Standard deviation (for a sample):

Slide 5  What’s statistically significant differences?

Slide 6  The normal curve distribution function:

Slide 7  Effect size: Cohen’s d, r, and r2
 To what extent a phenomenon exists.
 Ratio: Cohen’s d
 Percentage: r and r2

Slide 8  Population and Samples
 Population: Comprises all members of a group
 Quantitative values are parameters
 Inferential statistics infer population characteristics from sample data
 Notation is in Greek symbols
 Sample
 Quantitative values are estimates
 Descriptive statistics describe samples and do not infer or generalize to populations
 Notation is in alphanumeric

Slide 9  Types of Statistics
 Parametric statistics (ztest, ttest, ANOVA )
 Meet certain theoretical assumptions
 Example  Variable is normally distributed in the population
 Data must be interval or ratio
 Non parametric statistics (Chi square)
 Less rigorous theoretical assumptions
 Example  don’t meet normal distribution assumptions
 Example – distribution unknown or “free”

Slide 10  Statistical Values
 Constants: Values that don’t change
 Example: Pi is a constant of 3.1214, diameter of the earth is 7,918 miles
 Variables: Values that are free to change
 Example: Length or depth are variable
 Example: An price assigned to a product
 Discrete: Value can only be whole numbers
 Example: Family size

Slide 11  Statistical Values (con’t)
 Continuous: Value can range from negative infinite to positive infinite. Normally, the range is from “0” to some positive number
 Example: Weight or height are continuous (97.3 lbs or 5’3.2”)

Slide 12  Measurement
 Four Scales
 Qualitative Scales
 Nominal: Identification of substance
 Gender
 Ethnicity
 Ordinal: Ranks order of substance
 In a competition: First place, second place.
 Quantitative Scales
 Ratio: Absolute zero of substance: Kelvin
 Speed
 Weight
 Interval: Arbitrary zero: Celsius
 GRE scores

Slide 13  Types of Measurements

Slide 14  Research Variables
 Independent Variables: Vary naturally or are manipulated by the research
 Dependent Variables: “Dependent” on the independent variable; outcome
 Weight (dependent variables) dependent on caloric intake (independent variable)

Slide 15  References
 Dr. Young
 Dr. Roberts