# 1.- BASIC CONCEPTS-con-video

Created 2 years ago

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Slide Content
1. ### Slide 1 - EPSY 5210 Ed. Statistics

• Instructor: Hector Ponce
• Background:
• Research Interest
• Experience with Quantitative Analysis
2. ### Slide 2 - In the Beginning

• Necessary Information
3. ### Slide 3 - What’s statistics?

• The science of organizing and analyzing information.
• Inference
• To find:
• Areas under the bell curve (e.g., z test)
• Comparing means (i.e., t-test, and ANOVA)
• Correlations (Pearson r)
• Compare proportions (chi square)
4. ### Slide 4 - Parameters/statistics

• Mean (average):
• Standard deviation (for a sample):

7. ### Slide 7 - Effect size: Cohen’s d, r, and r2

• To what extent a phenomenon exists.
• Ratio: Cohen’s d
• Percentage: r and r2
8. ### Slide 8 - Population and Samples

• Population: Comprises all members of a group
• Quantitative values are parameters
• Inferential statistics infer population characteristics from sample data
• Notation is in Greek symbols
• Sample
• Quantitative values are estimates
• Descriptive statistics describe samples and do not infer or generalize to populations
• Notation is in alphanumeric
9. ### Slide 9 - Types of Statistics

• Parametric statistics (z-test, t-test, ANOVA )
• Meet certain theoretical assumptions
• Example - Variable is normally distributed in the population
• Data must be interval or ratio
• Non parametric statistics (Chi square)
• Less rigorous theoretical assumptions
• Example - don’t meet normal distribution assumptions
• Example – distribution unknown or “free”
10. ### Slide 10 - Statistical Values

• Constants: Values that don’t change
• Example: Pi is a constant of 3.1214, diameter of the earth is 7,918 miles
• Variables: Values that are free to change
• Example: Length or depth are variable
• Example: An price assigned to a product
• Discrete: Value can only be whole numbers
• Example: Family size
11. ### Slide 11 - Statistical Values (con’t)

• Continuous: Value can range from negative infinite to positive infinite. Normally, the range is from “0” to some positive number
• Example: Weight or height are continuous (97.3 lbs or 5’3.2”)
12. ### Slide 12 - Measurement

• Four Scales
• Qualitative Scales
• Nominal: Identification of substance
• Gender
• Ethnicity
• Ordinal: Ranks order of substance
• In a competition: First place, second place.
• Quantitative Scales
• Ratio: Absolute zero of substance: Kelvin
• Speed
• Weight
• Interval: Arbitrary zero: Celsius
• GRE scores

14. ### Slide 14 - Research Variables

• Independent Variables: Vary naturally or are manipulated by the research
• Dependent Variables: “Dependent” on the independent variable; outcome
• Weight (dependent variables) dependent on caloric intake (independent variable)
15. ### Slide 15 - References

• Dr. Young
• Dr. Roberts