powerpoint 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.8 What led to the writing of the Declaration

This powerpoint interacts with the Pinellas County Student Civics folder 2nd 9 weeks packet. It covers pages 43-67.

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powerpoint 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.8 What led to the writing of the Declaration

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This powerpoint interacts with the Pinellas County Student Civics folder 2nd 9 weeks packet. It covers pages 43-67.
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  1. What led to the writing of the Declaration of Independence?   (1.3)(1.4)(1.5)(1.8)

    Slide 1 - What led to the writing of the Declaration of Independence? (1.3)(1.4)(1.5)(1.8)

    • Learning Goals/Benchmark Clarifications
    • •Students will trace the causal relationships between English/British policies, English responses to colonial grievances, and the writing of the Declaration of Independence.
    • •Students will recognize the underlying themes of English colonial policies concerning taxation, representation, and individual rights that formed the basis of the American colonists’ desire for independence.
    • You will also analyze the ideas and complaints in the Declaration of Independence.
  2. Core Events Leading up to Independence

    Slide 2 - Core Events Leading up to Independence

  3. Colonial concerns, writing the declaration

    Slide 3 - Colonial concerns, writing the declaration

    • What do you see in this engraving on PAGE 43?
    • What do you think is going on in this engraving?
    • What is the issue on which it is focusing? How do you know?
    • Summary of event from class discussion:
  4. “Too Late To Apologize: A Declaration” video from Soomo Publishing

    Slide 5 - “Too Late To Apologize: A Declaration” video from Soomo Publishing

    • PAGE 43
    • What is the issue on which the video is focusing? How do you know?
    • What do you think is going on in the video?
    • Did any images or lyrics stand out to you?
    • How do you think painting might be connected to the video?
  5. death

    Slide 6 - death

    • Hey King: Get Off Our Backs!! Page 44
  6. Hey, king:  Get off Our Backs!   Page 44

    Slide 7 - Hey, king: Get off Our Backs! Page 44

  7. Summarize what you learned from the reading “Hey, King: Get Off Our Backs!”

    Slide 8 - Summarize what you learned from the reading “Hey, King: Get Off Our Backs!”

    • Date
    • Summary of English and Colonial Activities in Complete Sentences
    • Colonial Concern(s)
    • 1754-1763
    • 1764
    • 1765
    • 1766 & 1767
    • 1768 & 1769
    • 1770-1773
    • 1774
    • 1775
    • 1776
    • The Declaration of Independence is written and signed
  8. PAGE 49

    Slide 13 - PAGE 49

  9. View the painting of “the declaration of independence” by john trumbull July 4, 1776            page  49

    Slide 14 - View the painting of “the declaration of independence” by john trumbull July 4, 1776 page 49

  10. Slide 15

    • PAGE 50
  11. What should we do; become independent or not?

    Slide 16 - What should we do; become independent or not?

    • What don’t the colonists’ use their common sense and break ties with that tyrant king?
    • Why did the delegates declare independence from Great Britain?
    • In what ways did Paine’s writings influence the colonists?
    • How did Jefferson write the main details of the colonist’s reasons to leave their mother country?
    • What did the letter argue?
    • What were the grievances that they had towards the crown?
    • The steps leading to the Declaration of Independence involved many aspects; such as majorities of people in the 13 colonies influenced by writers like Thomas Paine and Thomas Jefferson and their own experiences with the Great Britain over a period of years to the final act complete separation.
    • PAGE 50
  12. Term

    Slide 17 - Term

    • Definition as it appears in context. PAGE 51
    • 1. abolish
    • 2. assent
    • 3. consent of the governed
    • 4. deprive
    • 5. derive
    • 6. despotism
    • 7. dissolve
    • 8. endow
    • 9. impel
    • 10. institute
    • 11. oppression
    • 12. quarter
    • 13. rectitude
    • 14. self-evident
    • 15. tyranny
    • 16. tyrant
    • 17. unalienable (inalienable) rights
    • 18. usurpation
  13. 1. abolish=FORMALLY PUT AN END TO;END, STOP, TERMINATE, ELIMINATE, EXTINGUISH

    Slide 18 - 1. abolish=FORMALLY PUT AN END TO;END, STOP, TERMINATE, ELIMINATE, EXTINGUISH

    • 2. assent=OFFICIALLY approval or agreement
    • 3. consent of the governed=the gov’t legitimacy and moral right to rule derived from the people or society over which that political power is exercised
    • 4. deprive=deny a person the possession or use of something; strip of; dispossess of;
    • 5. derive=obtain something from; get, take, gain, acquire, extract, attain
    • 6. despotism=exercise of absolute power in a cruel and oppressive way; a ruler who holds absolute power
    • 7. dissolve=close down or dismiss (an assembly or official body)., DISBAND, DISESTABLISH
    • 8. endow=give an income or give property to a person or institution; donating the funds to maintain it; finance it; fund it;
    • 9. impel=force, drive, urge someone to do something
    • 10. institute=create a school for a certain purpose;
    • 11. oppression=prolonged cruel or unjust treatment or control; persecution, abuse, tyranny, suppression
    • 12. quarter=two Acts of British Parliament in the 18th century. Parliament enacted them to order local governments of the American colonies to provide the British soldiers with any needed accommodations or housing
    • 13. rectitude=morally correct behavior or thinking, righteousness; goodness; morality; honor; decency
    • 14. self-evident=obvious; not needing to be demonstrated or explained; clear; plain; manifest (to make known)
    • 15. tyranny=cruel or unfair treatment by people with power over others
    • 16. tyrant= the office, authority, and administration of a tyrant
    • 17. unalienable (inalienable) rights=you can not sell or transfer unalienable rights, they are a gift from the creator to the individual and can not under any circumstances be surrendered or taken. All individual’s have these rights
    • 18. usurpation=illegally taking someone’s power, authority or property by force
    • Page 51
  14. Excerpts from the Declaration of Independence.

    Slide 19 - Excerpts from the Declaration of Independence.

    •  IN CONGRESS, July 4, 1776.
    • The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America,
    •  When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, …, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
    • We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.— That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, — That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government…But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security… The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.
    • …He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.
    • …He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.
    • … He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.
    • … He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.
    • … For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:
    • …For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent.
    • …For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury
    • In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.
    • We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States…And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.
    • PAGE 52
  15. PAGE 53

    Slide 20 - PAGE 53

  16. Slide 21

    • PAGE 53 ….
  17.  “…that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.— That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, — “

    Slide 22 - “…that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.— That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, — “

    • “… For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:..”
    • “…For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury”
    • “we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.”
  18. PAGE  55

    Slide 23 - PAGE 55

  19. PAGE 55

    Slide 24 - PAGE 55

  20. Core Events Leading up to Independence

    Slide 25 - Core Events Leading up to Independence

    • Remember to take notes of all videos in your folder slide 24
  21. .The Articles of Confederation.

    Slide 28 - .The Articles of Confederation.

    • PAGE 57
  22. .What were the Articles of Confederation?.

    Slide 29 - .What were the Articles of Confederation?.

    • The Articles of Confederation was written in 1776 and finally ratified, or approved, by the original thirteen states in 1781. Maryland was the last state to ratify the document in 1781. The confederation was the first government of the newly formed United States. A confederation is a government system where power is located with the independent states and there is little power in the central government. The desire for a confederation came from the colonists’ experience under King George III from England. They wanted to create a system that wouldn’t allow for unfair taxing or limiting individual rights.
    • Under the Articles of Confederation, most power was with the states. The articles stated that each colony was to act as an independent state, and that each state had the right to pass laws within their borders. The articles also established a weak national legislature to oversee interactions between the states.
    • Under the Articles of Confederation, states maintained their freedom and independence. As a result, states functioned in many ways as independent countries. For example, several states negotiated their own trade agreements with other countries, while other states established their own militaries.
    • With the states having the majority of government power, the central government had no control over the states’ actions and people began to fear that this system of government was not working because the national government was too weak. The Congress did not have the power to tax, so it could not pay for the army and navy needed to defend the nation. It also couldn’t regulate the trade agreements states were making with other countries. The Congress could also not enforce any laws they passed because there was no central leadership to make sure that laws were being enforced in each state or a central judicial system to interpret laws or settle disputes between states. Finally, if any changes were to be made to the Articles of Confederation, unanimous approval from all 13 states was required. This made it difficult to make any changes to the articles. As a result, the lack of powers held by the weak national Congress combined with each state’s independent actions, raised concerns that the Articles of Confederation were not designed in a way to protect the new nation.
    • By 1786 the economy of the United States was struggling due to debt, or money owed, from the Revolutionary War and because states were arguing over boundary lines and taxes. This economic situation impacted individual states and also individual citizens, especially farmers and merchants. These circumstances led to Shays’s Rebellion, a revolt by 2,000 western Massachusetts farmers who marched on county courthouses to prevent land foreclosures. A foreclosure is when a bank or other entity takes back property when taxes or debts are not paid. The farmers’ land was threatened with foreclosure because they were promised that they did not have to pay taxes and other debts on their land during the Revolutionary War. These promises were not kept and this led the farmers to revolt. Congress did not respond because it was too weak and did not have its own army. The Massachusetts militia finally ended the rebellion, but the situation made it clear that the national government did not have the ability to maintain order in this new nation. After Shays’s Rebellion, Alexander Hamilton of New York organized a meeting in Philadelphia in 1787. This meeting, called the Constitutional Convention, would eventually throw out the Articles of Confederation and draft the Constitution.
    • The freedom that the American Revolution sought to preserve proved to create a government under the Articles of Confederation that could not keep law and order. However, the experience with the Articles of Confederation led to the writing of the Constitution in 1787.
    • Adapted from: Florida Joint Center for Citizenship, Elementary Civics Module for SS.5.C.1.4, #2, http://www.ushistory.org/gov/2b.asp and http://www.kidspast.com/world-history/0368-articles-of-confederation.php.
    • PAGE 57
  23. Congress combined with each state’s independent actions, raised concerns that the Articles of

    Slide 30 - Congress combined with each state’s independent actions, raised concerns that the Articles of

    • Confederation were not designed in a way to protect the new nation. PAGE 58
    • By 1786 the economy of the United States was struggling due to debt, or money owed, from the Revolutionary War and because states were arguing over boundary lines and taxes. This economic situation impacted individual states and also individual citizens, especially farmers and merchants. These circumstances led to Shays’s Rebellion, a revolt by 2,000 western Massachusetts farmers who marched on county courthouses to prevent land foreclosures. A foreclosure is when a bank or other entity takes back property when taxes or debts are not paid. The farmers’ land was threatened with foreclosure because they were promised that they did not have to pay taxes and other debts on their land during the Revolutionary War. These promises were not kept and this led the farmers to revolt. Congress did not respond because it was too weak and did not have its own army. The Massachusetts militia finally ended the rebellion, but the situation made it clear that the national government did not have the ability to maintain order in this new nation. After Shays’s Rebellion, Alexander Hamilton of New York organized a meeting in Philadelphia in 1787. This meeting, called the Constitutional Convention, would eventually throw out the Articles of Confederation and draft the Constitution.
    • The freedom that the American Revolution sought to preserve proved to create a government under the Articles of Confederation that could not keep law and order. However, the experience with the Articles of Confederation led to the writing of the Constitution in 1787.
    • Adapted from: Florida Joint Center for Citizenship, Elementary Civics Module for SS.5.C.1.4, #2, http://www.ushistory.org/gov/2b.asp and http://www.kidspast.com/world-history/0368-articles-of-confederation.php
  24. D

    Slide 31 - D

    • G
    • H
    • H
    • PAGE 58
  25. PAGE  59

    Slide 34 - PAGE 59

  26. PAGE  60

    Slide 36 - PAGE 60

    • Congress had no power to tax
    • Congress had no power to regulate trade
    • . Congress had no power to enforce its laws
    • The national government lacked a national court system (judicial branch)
    • There was no central leadership (executive branch)
    • Changes to the Articles required unanimous consent of the 13 states.
    • The means Congress has the power to tax, provide for the common good, etc.
    • This means that ONLY Congress can manage trade with States and foreign countries
    • This means that the President has power to faithfully carry out laws expressly written by Congress
    • This means that the Constitution created one Supreme Court
    • This means that the power to execute is given to a President of the United States
    • This means that both Houses of Congress can propse changes to the Constitution
  27. PAGE  61

    Slide 37 - PAGE 61

  28. PAGE  61

    Slide 38 - PAGE 61

  29. PAGE 63

    Slide 39 - PAGE 63

  30. PAGE 63

    Slide 40 - PAGE 63

    • View “Washington as Statesman at the Constitutional Convention” by Junius Brutus Stearns.
    • What do you think is going on in this painting?
    • What is the issue on which it is focusing?
    • What is the action that is taking place?
    • Do you see any familiar people or objects?
    • This painting was the first to portray the activities of the Constitutional Convention. The painting portrays 39 delegates in attendance at the Convention with _____________________________ at the center. During the summer of 1787, between May and September, the delegates agreed to_____________________ the Articles of Confederation with the Constitution. In order for the Constitution to officially replace the Articles of Confederation, ________ of thirteen states had to vote in favor of the new Constitution. After the conclusion of the convention, delegates needed to ____________________the state legislatures (or their conventions) to agree that this was a good document and that they should support it.
  31. PAGE  64

    Slide 41 - PAGE 64

  32. People opposed to the ratification of the Constitution were called the Anti-Federalists. They were concerned that the Constitution gave too much power to the national government at the expense of the state governments. They were also concerned that, within the national government, the legislative and executive branches were too powerful. Anti-Federalists were also concerned that the Constitution lacked a specific listing of rights.

    Slide 42 - People opposed to the ratification of the Constitution were called the Anti-Federalists. They were concerned that the Constitution gave too much power to the national government at the expense of the state governments. They were also concerned that, within the national government, the legislative and executive branches were too powerful. Anti-Federalists were also concerned that the Constitution lacked a specific listing of rights.

    • To communicate their concerns, Anti-Federalists such as Patrick Henry wrote essays and newspaper articles to spread their point of view and these writings became known as the Anti-Federalist Papers.
    • Anti-Federalists were also concerned that the Constitution lacked a specific listing of rights. They believed that a bill of rights was essential to protect the people from the federal government. The Revolutionary War had just been fought because the American people needed to defend their rights. With the war experience still in mind, the Anti-Federalists did not want a powerful national government taking away those rights. The lack of a bill of rights became the focus of the Anti-Federalist campaign against ratification.
  33. The main arguments in favor of ratifying the Constitution were stated in a series of essays written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay called the Federalist Papers which were published in newspapers.

    Slide 43 - The main arguments in favor of ratifying the Constitution were stated in a series of essays written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay called the Federalist Papers which were published in newspapers.

  34. A list of rights is necessary to protect people and states from the federal government.

    Slide 45 - A list of rights is necessary to protect people and states from the federal government.

    • A list of rights is not necessary because the federal government’s powers are limited
    • Both agree that rights are important. Anti-Federalists believe that a list of rights is necessary to include in order to protect the rights. Federalists believe that a list of rights will limit the amount of rights protected.
    • The federal government has too much power and too much of the states’ power is taken away.
    • A strong central government is necessary and the Constitution will protect the state governments.
    • They disagree. The Anti-Federalists believe that the Constitution gives the federal government too much power and the states with not enough power. The Federalists believe that the a strong central government is necessary, but the Constitution will protect the state governments.
    • The Necessary and Proper Clause will give too much power to the federal government.
    • The Necessary and Proper Clause is necessary so that the federal government can do its job.
    • They disagree. Anti-Federalists believe the clause will lead to the federal government to have too much power. The Federalists believe that it is necessary.
  35. The Federalists and Republicans in Early America

    Slide 49 - The Federalists and Republicans in Early America

    • 8 MINUTES: WRITE NOTES IN YOUR NOTEBOOK