Avoiding Plagiarism in Psychological Writing

This lesson covers the basics of what constitutes plagiarism in written communications, the when and how of citing and quoting, proper paraphrasing, and how far to go with paraphrasing and citing. It is geared towards a university undergraduate audience. The citation, quotation, and reference guidelines provided herein are based on the 6th edition of the APA Publication Manual (American Psychological Association, 2010). You may adapt any part of this lesson for your own use.

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Avoiding Plagiarism in Psychological Writing

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This lesson covers the basics of what constitutes plagiarism in written communications, the when and how of citing and quoting, proper paraphrasing, and how far to go with paraphrasing and citing. It is geared towards a university undergraduate audience. The citation, quotation, and reference guidelines provided herein are based on the 6th edition of the APA Publication Manual (American Psychological Association, 2010). You may adapt any part of this lesson for your own use.
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  1. voiding

    Slide 1 - voiding

    • Dr. Clara M. Cheng ● Carlow University ● Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    • A
    • in Psychological Writing
    • Plagiarism
  2. Objectives

    Slide 2 - Objectives

    • Understand what constitutes plagiarism in written communications
    • Learn the “when” and “how” of citing and quoting
    • Knowing when to quote and when to paraphrase
    • Learn how far to go with paraphrasing and citing
  3. What is plagiarism?

    Slide 3 - What is plagiarism?

  4. Is this plagiarism?

    Slide 5 - Is this plagiarism?

    • Copying a sentence from another source and pasting it word for word into your own paper without giving credit to the original source.
    • Copying a sentence from another source and pasting it word for word into your own paper and giving credit to the original source, but without quotation marks.
    • Taking an idea from another source and writing it in your own words, without giving credit to the original source.
    • Copying a sentence from another source and pasting it word for word into your own paper, then changing a few words and giving credit to the original source.
  5. Plagiarism in Writing

    Slide 6 - Plagiarism in Writing

    • Taking information you obtained from another source and using it in a way that suggests it is your own work
    • Includes words as well as information or ideas!
    • Thus, anything that did not come from your own original thoughts must be given credit in some way.
  6. Giving Proper Credit

    Slide 7 - Giving Proper Credit

    • Exact wording
    • Information or Idea
    • Must Quote
    • Must Cite
    • Must Cite
    • From another source
  7. Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections.

    Slide 8 - Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections.

    • Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections.
    • Original source:
    • (Exact words as they appear in Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner, and Nock, 2014, page 255)
    • Is this plagiarism?
  8. Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections.

    Slide 10 - Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections.

    • Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections.
    • Severely plagiarized:
    • Missing Quotation Marks!
    • Missing Citation!
    • Original source:
    • (Exact words as they appear in Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner, and Nock, 2014, page 255)
  9. Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections.

    Slide 11 - Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections.

    • Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections (Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner, & Nock, 2014).
    • Original source:
    • (Exact words as they appear in Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner, and Nock, 2014, page 255)
    • Is this plagiarism?
  10. Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections.

    Slide 13 - Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections.

    • Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections (Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner, & Nock, 2014).
    • Still plagiarized:
    • Original source:
    • (Exact words as they appear in Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner, and Nock, 2014, page 255)
    • Missing Quotation Marks!
  11. Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections.

    Slide 14 - Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections.

    • Original source:
    • (Exact words as they appear in Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner, and Nock, 2014, page 255)
    • “Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections” (Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner, & Nock, 2014, p. 255).
    • Is this plagiarism?
  12. Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections.

    Slide 16 - Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections.

    • Original source:
    • (Exact words as they appear in Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner, and Nock, 2014, page 255)
    • “Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections” (Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner, & Nock, 2014, p. 255).
    • Properly cited and quoted in text:
    • According to Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner, and Nock (2014), “Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections” (p. 255).
    • - or -
  13. Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections.

    Slide 17 - Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections.

    • Original source:
    • (Exact words as they appear in Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner, and Nock, 2014, page 255)
    • “Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections” (Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner, & Nock, 2014, p. 255).
    • Properly cited and quoted in text:
    • According to Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner, and Nock (2014), “Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections” (p. 255).
    • - or -
    • Notice that when you quote from a source, you must include the page number in the citation.
  14. Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections.

    Slide 18 - Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections.

    • Original source:
    • (Exact words as they appear in Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner, and Nock, 2014, page 255)
    • “Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections” (Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner, & Nock, 2014, p. 255).
    • Properly cited and quoted in text:
    • According to Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner, and Nock (2014), “Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections” (p. 255).
    • - or -
    • All citations that appear in the text of your paper must be included in the Reference section at the end.
  15. Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections.

    Slide 19 - Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections.

    • Original source:
    • (Exact words as they appear in Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner, and Nock, 2014, page 255)
    • References
    • Schacter, D. L., Gilbert, D. T., Wegner, D. M., & Nock, M. K. (2014). Psychology (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Worth Publishers.
    • In the Reference section:
  16. ● American Psychological Association | The Basics of APA Style ●

    Slide 20 - ● American Psychological Association | The Basics of APA Style ●

    • ● Purdue University Online Writing Lab | APA Style ●
    • For More Guidance on APA style
  17. Quoting Accurately

    Slide 21 - Quoting Accurately

    • Quotations must be accurate
    • Anything appearing within quotation marks is assumed to have been taken in the exact form—same wording, spelling, emphasis, etc.
    • If you change anything, you must indicate so
    • E.g., To change words, use [ ]; to shorten passage, use “…”
    • But this is lazy writing!!
  18. Proper Approach to Writing

    Slide 22 - Proper Approach to Writing

    • Writing is about expressing yourself—Take ownership! Use your own voice!
    • Direct quotes from another writer disrupts the flow of your expression
    • One goal of a writing assignment is to hone your skills in writing
  19. No one learns to write by copying and pasting

    Slide 23 - No one learns to write by copying and pasting

  20. Quoting: Some Exceptions

    Slide 25 - Quoting: Some Exceptions

    • When the original source is written so elegantly that it cannot be worded any better
    • When using the quote to make a point
  21. Paraphrasing

    Slide 26 - Paraphrasing

    • Expressing ideas obtained from others in your own words
  22. Giving Proper Credit

    Slide 27 - Giving Proper Credit

    • Exact wording
    • Information or Idea
    • Must Quote
    • Must Cite
    • Must Cite
    • From another source
  23. Paraphrasing

    Slide 28 - Paraphrasing

    • Expressing information and ideas obtained from others in your own words
    • You must still cite the source
  24. Paraphrasing

    Slide 29 - Paraphrasing

    • Common strategy:
    • Copy source, then change a few words
    • This is still plagiarism!
    • Expressing an idea in your own words also means expressing it in your own style!
  25. Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections.

    Slide 30 - Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections.

    • Suggestibility refers to the tendency to integrate misleading material from outside sources into personal memories (Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner, & Nock, 2014).
    • Original source:
    • (Exact words as they appear in Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner, and Nock, 2014, page 255)
    • Is this plagiarism?
  26. Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections.

    Slide 32 - Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections.

    • Suggestibility refers to the tendency to integrate misleading material from outside sources into personal memories (Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner, & Nock, 2014).
    • Original source:
    • (Exact words as they appear in Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner, and Nock, 2014, page 255)
    • Still plagiarized:
  27. Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections.

    Slide 33 - Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections.

    • Suggestibility refers to the tendency to integrate misleading material from outside sources into personal memories (Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner, & Nock, 2014).
    • Still plagiarized:
    • Original source:
    • (Exact words as they appear in Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner, and Nock, 2014, page 255)
    • Suspect words!
    • Same sentence structure!
  28. Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections.

    Slide 34 - Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections.

    • Suggestibility refers to “the tendency to [integrate] misleading [material] from [outside] sources into personal [memories]” (Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner, & Nock, 2014, p. 255).
    • Original source:
    • (Exact words as they appear in Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner, and Nock, 2014, page 255)
    • Is this plagiarism?
  29. Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections.

    Slide 36 - Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections.

    • Suggestibility refers to “the tendency to [integrate] misleading [material] from [outside] sources into personal [memories]” (Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner, & Nock, 2014, p. 255).
    • Original source:
    • (Exact words as they appear in Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner, and Nock, 2014, page 255)
    • Not plagiarized, but awkward:
  30. Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections.

    Slide 37 - Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections.

    • Suggestibility occurs when our own memories are distorted by inaccurate information from outside sources.
    • Original source:
    • (Exact words as they appear in Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner, and Nock, 2014, page 255)
    • Is this plagiarism?
  31. Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections.

    Slide 39 - Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections.

    • Suggestibility occurs when our own memories are distorted by inaccurate information from outside sources.
    • Still plagiarized:
    • Original source:
    • (Exact words as they appear in Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner, and Nock, 2014, page 255)
    • Missing Citation!
  32. Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections.

    Slide 40 - Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections.

    • Suggestibility occurs when our own memories are distorted by inaccurate information from outside sources (Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner, & Nock, 2014).
    • Original source:
    • (Exact words as they appear in Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner, and Nock, 2014, page 255)
    • Is this plagiarism?
  33. Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections.

    Slide 42 - Suggestibility is the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections.

    • Suggestibility occurs when our own memories are distorted by inaccurate information from outside sources (Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner, & Nock, 2014).
    • Fully paraphrased and properly cited:
    • Original source:
    • (Exact words as they appear in Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner, and Nock, 2014, page 255)
  34. Over-paraphrasing

    Slide 44 - Over-paraphrasing

    • Beware of going too far with paraphrasing!
    • Do not paraphrase key terms or words that convey the clearest meaning in the context of the subject
    • E.g., “self-awareness,” “classical conditioning,” “object permanence,” “sample,” “intelligence,” “stereotypes”
    • If changing a word confuses its meaning, don’t change it
  35. Over-citing

    Slide 45 - Over-citing

    • It is often tempting to be overly careful with citations, but to be a good writer, one must learn to strike the right balance between citing too much and citing too little
    • Consider what it is you are communicating to the reader
  36. Baddeley and Hitch (1974) proposed a model of working memory as an alternative to the prevailing model of short-term memory. It posits that working memory is comprised of a central executive and two slave systems (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974). One of the slave systems is the phonological loop, which is responsible for storage and rehearsal of verbal material (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974). The other slave system, which they termed the visuospatial sketchpad, is involved in rehearsing spatial information (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974). The job of integrating and coordinating these two slave systems falls on the central executive (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974).

    Slide 46 - Baddeley and Hitch (1974) proposed a model of working memory as an alternative to the prevailing model of short-term memory. It posits that working memory is comprised of a central executive and two slave systems (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974). One of the slave systems is the phonological loop, which is responsible for storage and rehearsal of verbal material (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974). The other slave system, which they termed the visuospatial sketchpad, is involved in rehearsing spatial information (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974). The job of integrating and coordinating these two slave systems falls on the central executive (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974).

    • Over-citing example #1
  37. Baddeley and Hitch (1974) proposed a model of working memory as an alternative to the prevailing model of short-term memory. It posits that working memory is comprised of a central executive and two slave systems (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974). One of the slave systems is the phonological loop, which is responsible for storage and rehearsal of verbal material (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974). The other slave system, which they termed the visuospatial sketchpad, is involved in rehearsing spatial information (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974). The job of integrating and coordinating these two slave systems falls on the central executive (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974).

    Slide 47 - Baddeley and Hitch (1974) proposed a model of working memory as an alternative to the prevailing model of short-term memory. It posits that working memory is comprised of a central executive and two slave systems (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974). One of the slave systems is the phonological loop, which is responsible for storage and rehearsal of verbal material (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974). The other slave system, which they termed the visuospatial sketchpad, is involved in rehearsing spatial information (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974). The job of integrating and coordinating these two slave systems falls on the central executive (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974).

    • Over-citing example #1
  38. Baddeley and Hitch (1974) proposed a model of working memory as an alternative to the prevailing model of short-term memory. It posits that working memory is comprised of a central executive and two slave systems (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974). One of the slave systems is the phonological loop, which is responsible for storage and rehearsal of verbal material (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974). The other slave system, which they termed the visuospatial sketchpad, is involved in rehearsing spatial information (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974). The job of integrating and coordinating these two slave systems falls on the central executive (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974).

    Slide 48 - Baddeley and Hitch (1974) proposed a model of working memory as an alternative to the prevailing model of short-term memory. It posits that working memory is comprised of a central executive and two slave systems (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974). One of the slave systems is the phonological loop, which is responsible for storage and rehearsal of verbal material (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974). The other slave system, which they termed the visuospatial sketchpad, is involved in rehearsing spatial information (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974). The job of integrating and coordinating these two slave systems falls on the central executive (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974).

    • Over-citing example #1
  39. Baddeley and Hitch (1974) proposed a model of working memory as an alternative to the prevailing model of short-term memory. It posits that working memory is comprised of a central executive and two slave systems. One of the slave systems is the phonological loop, which is responsible for storage and rehearsal of verbal material. The other slave system, which they termed the visuospatial sketchpad, is involved in rehearsing spatial information. The job of integrating and coordinating these two slave systems falls on the central executive.

    Slide 49 - Baddeley and Hitch (1974) proposed a model of working memory as an alternative to the prevailing model of short-term memory. It posits that working memory is comprised of a central executive and two slave systems. One of the slave systems is the phonological loop, which is responsible for storage and rehearsal of verbal material. The other slave system, which they termed the visuospatial sketchpad, is involved in rehearsing spatial information. The job of integrating and coordinating these two slave systems falls on the central executive.

    • Over-citing example #1
  40. Over-citing

    Slide 50 - Over-citing

    • Cases of over-citing:
    • Citing after every single sentence in a paragraph that refers to the same source
  41. Cognitive dissonance theory applies when we experience incompatible attitudes, thoughts, or behaviors, resulting in a feeling of tension and discomfort that we are motivated to reduce by justifying our attitudes, thoughts, or behaviors (Aronson & Mills, 1959; Brehm, 1956; Festinger, 1957, 1959, 1964; Festinger & Carlsmith, 1959; Tavris & Aronson, 2007).

    Slide 51 - Cognitive dissonance theory applies when we experience incompatible attitudes, thoughts, or behaviors, resulting in a feeling of tension and discomfort that we are motivated to reduce by justifying our attitudes, thoughts, or behaviors (Aronson & Mills, 1959; Brehm, 1956; Festinger, 1957, 1959, 1964; Festinger & Carlsmith, 1959; Tavris & Aronson, 2007).

    • Over-citing example #2
  42. Cognitive dissonance theory applies when we experience incompatible attitudes, thoughts, or behaviors, resulting in a feeling of tension and discomfort that we are motivated to reduce by justifying our attitudes, thoughts, or behaviors (Aronson & Mills, 1959; Brehm, 1956; Festinger, 1957, 1959, 1964; Festinger & Carlsmith, 1959; Tavris & Aronson, 2007).

    Slide 52 - Cognitive dissonance theory applies when we experience incompatible attitudes, thoughts, or behaviors, resulting in a feeling of tension and discomfort that we are motivated to reduce by justifying our attitudes, thoughts, or behaviors (Aronson & Mills, 1959; Brehm, 1956; Festinger, 1957, 1959, 1964; Festinger & Carlsmith, 1959; Tavris & Aronson, 2007).

    • Over-citing example #2
  43. Cognitive dissonance theory applies when we experience incompatible attitudes, thoughts, or behaviors, resulting in a feeling of tension and discomfort that we are motivated to reduce by justifying our attitudes, thoughts, or behaviors (Aronson & Mills, 1959; Brehm, 1956; Festinger, 1957, 1959, 1964; Festinger & Carlsmith, 1959; Tavris & Aronson, 2007).

    Slide 53 - Cognitive dissonance theory applies when we experience incompatible attitudes, thoughts, or behaviors, resulting in a feeling of tension and discomfort that we are motivated to reduce by justifying our attitudes, thoughts, or behaviors (Aronson & Mills, 1959; Brehm, 1956; Festinger, 1957, 1959, 1964; Festinger & Carlsmith, 1959; Tavris & Aronson, 2007).

    • Over-citing example #2
  44. Cognitive dissonance theory applies when we experience incompatible attitudes, thoughts, or behaviors, resulting in a feeling of tension and discomfort that we are motivated to reduce by justifying our attitudes, thoughts, or behaviors (Festinger, 1957).

    Slide 54 - Cognitive dissonance theory applies when we experience incompatible attitudes, thoughts, or behaviors, resulting in a feeling of tension and discomfort that we are motivated to reduce by justifying our attitudes, thoughts, or behaviors (Festinger, 1957).

    • Over-citing example #2
  45. Over-citing

    Slide 55 - Over-citing

    • Cases of over-citing:
    • Citing after every single sentence in a paragraph that refers to the same source
    • Using too many citations for one concept that do not add substantive information
  46. Happiness and sadness are common emotions (Ekman & Freisen, 1971).

    Slide 56 - Happiness and sadness are common emotions (Ekman & Freisen, 1971).

    • Over-citing example #3
  47. Happiness and sadness are common emotions (Ekman & Freisen, 1971).

    Slide 57 - Happiness and sadness are common emotions (Ekman & Freisen, 1971).

    • Over-citing example #3
  48. Happiness and sadness are common emotions (Ekman & Freisen, 1971).

    Slide 58 - Happiness and sadness are common emotions (Ekman & Freisen, 1971).

    • Over-citing example #3
  49. Happiness and sadness are common emotions.

    Slide 59 - Happiness and sadness are common emotions.

    • Happiness and sadness are common emotions. Along with fear, anger, disgust, and surprise, these six emotions comprise a group of what has been dubbed “basic emotions” that is purportedly universal across different cultures (Ekman & Freisen, 1971).
    • Over-citing example #3
  50. Over-citing

    Slide 60 - Over-citing

    • Cases of over-citing:
    • Citing after every single sentence in a paragraph that refers to the same source
    • Using too many citations for one concept that do not add substantive information
    • Citing common knowledge and generally acknowledged facts
  51. Over-citing example #4

    Slide 61 - Over-citing example #4

    • My friend Kay experiences symptoms of depression in the winter months (Westrin & Lam, 2007).
  52. My friend Kay experiences symptoms of depression in the winter months (Westrin & Lam, 2007).

    Slide 62 - My friend Kay experiences symptoms of depression in the winter months (Westrin & Lam, 2007).

    • Over-citing example #4
  53. Over-citing example #4

    Slide 63 - Over-citing example #4

    • My friend Kay experiences symptoms of depression in the winter months (Westrin & Lam, 2007).
  54. My friend Kay experiences symptoms of depression in the winter months.

    Slide 64 - My friend Kay experiences symptoms of depression in the winter months.

    • My friend Kay experiences symptoms of depression in the winter months. She suffers from seasonal affective disorder, which tends to begin in the fall or winter and recedes in the warmer months, following closely the pattern of changes in available daylight across the seasons (Westrin & Lam, 2007).
    • Over-citing example #4
  55. Over-citing

    Slide 65 - Over-citing

    • Cases of over-citing:
    • Citing after every single sentence in a paragraph that refers to the same source
    • Using too many citations for one concept that do not add substantive information
    • Citing common knowledge and generally acknowledged facts
    • Citing your own personal opinion, example, observation, data
  56. A Few Final Thoughts

    Slide 66 - A Few Final Thoughts

    • You must cite the source that you actually read
  57. Robert Zajonc (1968) found that the more often people saw a novel simulus—whether it was a foreign word, a geometric form, or a human face—the more they came to like it.

    Slide 67 - Robert Zajonc (1968) found that the more often people saw a novel simulus—whether it was a foreign word, a geometric form, or a human face—the more they came to like it.

    • Research has found that repeated exposure to a new stimulus increases our liking for it (Zajonc, 1968).
    • Inappropriate citation:
    • Not from cited source
    • Original source:
    • (Exact words as they appear in Kassin, Fein, and Markus, 2011, page 345)
  58. Robert Zajonc (1968) found that the more often people saw a novel simulus—whether it was a foreign word, a geometric form, or a human face—the more they came to like it.

    Slide 68 - Robert Zajonc (1968) found that the more often people saw a novel simulus—whether it was a foreign word, a geometric form, or a human face—the more they came to like it.

    • Research has found that repeated exposure to a new stimulus increases our liking for it (Zajonc, 1968, as cited in Kassin, Fein, & Markus, 2011).
    • Fully paraphrased and properly cited:
    • Original source:
    • (Exact words as they appear in Kassin, Fein, and Markus, 2011, page 345)
    • Kassin, S., Fein, S., & Markus, H. R. (2011). Social psychology (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
    • In the Reference section:
  59. A Few Final Thoughts

    Slide 69 - A Few Final Thoughts

    • You must cite the source that you actually read
    • Secondary sources should be reserved only when it is impossible to obtain the original source
    • Beware of self-plagiarism
    • Reusing previous work of your own and passing it off as new
    • Never submit the same assignment (either in whole or in part) to different courses or as separate assignments
  60. ● Purdue University Online Writing Lab | Avoiding Plagiarism ●

    Slide 70 - ● Purdue University Online Writing Lab | Avoiding Plagiarism ●

    • ● Plagiarism.org ●
    • ● Harvard University | Avoiding Plagiarism ●
    • ● The Encouragement Lounge by Dr. H. Schwartz | APA Citation Decision Tree ●
    • Additional Resources on Avoiding Plagiarism
  61. The handout (in pdf format) accompanying this lesson may be found here.

    Slide 71 - The handout (in pdf format) accompanying this lesson may be found here.

  62. About This Lesson

    Slide 72 - About This Lesson

    • This lesson is produced by Clara M. Cheng of the Department of Psychology and Counseling at Carlow University in 2015 and is geared towards a university undergraduate audience. The citation, quotation, and reference guidelines provided herein are based on the 6th edition of the APA Publication Manual (American Psychological Association, 2010).
    • You may adapt any part of this lesson for your own use. Although explicit permission from the author is not needed, you are welcome to email her at cmcheng@carlow.edu and let her know how you have used this lesson or if you have any feedback. She would love to hear from you!
    • All images contained in this presentation are in the public domain, courtesy of Pixabay.com.
    • Reference
    • American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author.