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Slide 1 - What’s Involved in Installing Wiring Distributions
- Many components involved in wiring a computer network
- There are standards – for “Structured Cabling”, which specify how some of the components are laid out
- Cables and connectors
- Cross-connects (see next slide)
- Patch panels (see slide later)
- Devices that connectors connect to
- Both Horizontal Cabling and Vertical Cabling (see next slide)
Slide 2 - Vertical and Horizontal Cross-Connects
- Cross-connect is a location within a cabling system where all wires come together
- Cables that run from communications closets to wall outlets are horizontal connect cables
- Patch cable is any cable that has a connector on both ends and is used to connect a network device to a network device, a wall jack to a network device, or a network device to a patch panel
- Vertical connect cables are backbone cables that connect equipment rooms, telecommunications rooms, and other physical termination points
Slide 3 - Patch Panels
- Rack or wall-mounted structures that house cable connections
- Types of patch panels
- 66 block
- 110 block
- Demarc/demarc extension
- Smart jack
- Front of patch panel
- Back of patch panel
Slide 4 - What are 66 Block and 110 Block?
- Both are “punch-down” blocks used to connect wires to other connectionsHowever, 66 block is older and considered legacy
- Unsuited for network communications speeds faster than 10 mbps
- 25 pair – used primarily to connect telephone wires
- 110 block is newer
- Used for computer network connections
- One side has RJ-11 jacks (for phone connections) or RJ-45 jacks (for network connections)
Slide 5 - MDF and IDF – the equipment rooms
- Main distribution frame (MDF)
- The location in the customer building where the carrier line (Verizon, AT&T, BrightHouse, etc.) comes into the customer premises and is converted to the customer LAN network
- Installed in building as part of prewiring process
- Often contain the “Demarc” Point (see next slide)
- Intermediate distribution frame (IDF)
- Located in an equipment or telecommunications room
- Connected to MDF by a backbone cable
- The carrier sends its WAN signal to the MDF
Slide 6 - Demarc/Demarc Extension
- Demarc (demarcation point) is last point of responsibility of the service provider
- Is often at the MDF in a large building
- Demarc extension is length of copper or fiber that begins after the demarc but does not reach all the way up to your office
- Most often used when the external service enters your building somewhere other than the MDF
- The “NID” (Smart Jack) often servers as the Demarc point – next slide
Slide 7 - Smart Jack (or Network Interface Device)
- Also called a Network Interface Device (NID)
- Owned by the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) or carrier
- Serves as the demarcation point between the carrier (Verizon, AT&T, etc.) and the customer’s computer network
- Service provider may install a NID that has power and can be looped for testing purposes
Slide 8 - Verifying Correct Wiring Installation
- What can go wrong?
- Copper cables placed too close to a magnetic source
- Cable jackets ripped off when pulling cable
- Cables cut wrong and extended beyond the maximum length for their type
- Fiber-optic cables handled roughly or poorly installed
- Test, test, and test again
- Wiring Best Practices
- Install more cables than necessary
- If a cable goes bad in the future, an extra cable can take the place of the bad cable
- Keep detailed records
Slide 9 - Verifying Proper Wiring Termination
- Inspect the installation
- Verify that all wires are terminated properly in the right order
- Fiber-optic termination requires specialized and expensive equipment and training
- Terminate new connections using the appropriate tools
Slide 10 - The last Media We Discuss - Wireless Media
- Defined by the 802.11 standards
- 802.11ac is the new one
Slide 11 - IEEE 802.11
- Most prominent standard for wireless LANs
- The standards within 802.11n address:
- Channel Bonding
Slide 12 - 802.11a
- Theoretical maximum throughput is 54 mbps; realistically more like 22 mbps
- Maximum indoor distance is ~50 feet or 15 meters
- Maximum outdoor distance is ~100 feet or 30 meters
- Uses the 5 GHz radio frequency range
- 8 non-overlapping channels
- Theoretical throughput of up to 11 mbps; realistically more like 2.5 mbps
- Maximum indoor range or distance is ~150 feet or 45 meters
- Maximum outdoor range is ~300 feet or 90 meters
- Uses the 2.4 GHz radio frequency range
- 3 non-overlapping channels: 1, 6, and 11
Slide 13 - 802.11g
- Uses the same frequency range and same channels as 802.11b
- Has same distance capabilities as 802.11b
- Theoretical throughput is 54 mbps; realistic throughput is ~22 mbps
- Fully backwards compatible with 802.11b
- Uses 5 GHz and 2.4 GHz frequency ranges
- Theoretical throughput is 300 to 600 mbps; realistically between 100 and 200 mbps
- Maximum indoor distance is ~229 feet or 70 meters
- Maximum outdoor distance is 820 feet or 250 meters
- Uses channel bonding, where two or more adjacent channels are linked together
Slide 14 - Tying It All Together
- Important to know what types of media connect to specific devices and in which order
- Connecting the wrong type of media to a device, or connecting media in the wrong place, prevents network communication
Slide 15 - Summary
- Ethernet cable types are denoted by N<Signaling>–X.
- Common cabling is shielded twisted-pair (STP) or unshielded twisted-pair (UTP).
- Common grades of twisted-pair wires used in LANs are CAT 5, CAT 5e, and CAT 6
- Some cabling is susceptible to EMI and interference.
- Fiber-optic cabling transmits digital signals using light impulses and is immune to EMI and RFI.
Slide 16 - Summary (Continued)
- Fiber-optic cabling is single-mode fiber (SMF) or multimode fiber (MMF).
- Patch panels are rack- or wall-mounted structures that house cable connections.
- Types of patch panels include 66 block, 110 block, demarc/demarc extension, and smart jack.
- Wireless standards are 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, and 802.11n (new one is 802.11ac)
Slide 17 - Self-Assessment
- What does an Ethernet standard of 1000Base-F mean?
- What are the 2 types of twisted pair cables?
- Which is the most modern category of unshielded twisted pair?
- What are the some of the issues with using copper wire?
- What are some of the pros and cons of using fiber optic cable?
- What are MIMO and bonding and how do they relate to wireless transmissions?
- What is an MDF and an IDF?
- What are patch panels?
- What is the difference between horizontal and vertical cabling?
- Which type of media is immune to electromagnetic interference?