Cross curricular presentation

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Cross curricular presentation

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  1. A research and policy informed discussion of cross-curricular approaches to the teaching of mathematics and science with a focus on how scientific enquiry can support this approach and the use and misuse of ICT.

    Slide 1 - A research and policy informed discussion of cross-curricular approaches to the teaching of mathematics and science with a focus on how scientific enquiry can support this approach and the use and misuse of ICT.

  2. “Cross-curricular teaching combines the skills, knowledge and attitudes of two or more subjects in a single experience.”

    Slide 2 - “Cross-curricular teaching combines the skills, knowledge and attitudes of two or more subjects in a single experience.”

    • The curriculum is the focus not the topic or theme. (Barnes, 2011)
    • Good cross-curricular teaching is a child-centred experience.
    • “A creative way of linking subjects through a common theme to give pupils a meaningful, practical and motivating context for learning. It enables pupils to use similar skills in different subjects within that context.” (Jarvis, 2009).
    • A discrete approach to teaching describes the teaching of separate subjects which focuses only on the curriculum knowledge, skills and understanding of that particular subject.
  3. Relevant context

    Slide 3 - Relevant context

    • Learning is less disjointed
    • Constructivist view of learning
    • Active participation in learning for later life (Barnes, 2011)
    • Study showed 75% of children understood the tasks better through active learning (Clarke, 2008)
    • Allows teachers to be creative (Cremin et al, 2006)
    • Any subject can be developed into a strength or passion (Robinson & Aronica, 2010)
    • Subject progression by limiting subjects involved in cross-curricular work to 2 or 3 (Barnes & Shirley, 2007; Jacobs, 2004; Roth, 2000)
    • Links with sustained engagement and emotional wellbeing (Ofsted, 2010)
    • Science and maths development needs to be matched,
    • Requires careful planning
    • May not be effective if teacher subject knowledge is weak (Plowden, 1967; Alexander, 2010)
    • May need specialist support and confidence
    • Subjects need clear boundaries (Hayes, 2010)
    • Not challenging enough
    • Difficult to assess
    • Past cross-curricular pedagogy has had issues. Alexander (2010) Gives a case for revisiting (with caution) cross-curricular approaches but not “Low-grade topic work”.
    • Can be ineffective, trivialising, confusing, misleading if there is poor practice (Barnes, 2011)
    • Subjects lose their identity (Parkinson, 2010)
    • Superficial or fragmented learning (Alexander et al, 1992)
    • Benefits
    • Disadvantages
  4. Mathematics

    Slide 4 - Mathematics

    • Science
    • Measuring
    • Using measuring instruments
    • Connections between measure and number
    • Decimal numbers
    • Data handling
    • Tables and graphs
    • Pattern seeking
    • Importance of mathematical evidence to support scientific claims
    • Scientific Enquiry
  5. Measuring

    Slide 5 - Measuring

    • Using measuring instruments
    • Connections between measure and number
    • Decimal numbers
    • Data handling
    • Tables and graphs
    • Pattern seeking
    • Importance of mathematical evidence to support scientific claims
    • Scientific Enquiry
    • Can we slow down cooling?
    • Measuring temperature,
    • Using thermometers,
    • Understanding time,
    • Connecting measure and number on a scale,
    • Recording findings in a table,
    • Drawing a line graph,
    • Identifying patterns in the data and using these to draw scientific conclusions.
  6. Slide 6

    • Other scientific enquiries that link with maths include:
  7. “should apply their mathematical knowledge to their understanding of science, including collecting, presenting and analysing data.”

    Slide 7 - “should apply their mathematical knowledge to their understanding of science, including collecting, presenting and analysing data.”

    • “use different contexts to maximise their pupils’ engagement with and motivation to study science.”
    • “Pupils should seek answers to questions through collecting, analysing and presenting data.”
    • “observing changes over time, noticing patterns, grouping and classifying things”
    • ”…analysing functions, relationships and interactions more systematically.”
    • “taking measurements, using a range of scientific equipment, with increasing accuracy and precision, taking repeat readings where appropriate”
    • “Mathematics is a creative and highly interconnected discipline that…is essential to everyday life, critical to science, technology and engineering...” children “should also apply their mathematical knowledge to science and other subjects.”
    • and “draw[ing] conclusions based on their data and observations, use evidence to justify their ideas, and use their scientific knowledge and understanding to explain their findings.”
    • “recording data and results of increasing complexity using scientific diagrams and labels, classification keys, tables, and bar and line graphs”
    • “use test results to make predictions to set up further comparative and fair tests”
    • “reporting and presenting findings from enquiries”, and “identifying scientific evidence that has been used to support or refute ideas or arguments”
    • The National Curriculum for 2014 (DfE, 2013)
  8. ICT is integral to all parts of cross-curricular teaching and learning.

    Slide 8 - ICT is integral to all parts of cross-curricular teaching and learning.

    • It can be used to:
    • Model some of the ways scientists work.
    • Provide access to rich and varied source materials.
    • Speed up processes that would normally take much longer.
    • Allow safe access to difficult, expensive or hazardous activities.
    • Enable children to learn in a variety of ways.
    • Provide an alternative format that is more relevant to the children.
  9. Use of ICT

    Slide 9 - Use of ICT

    • Ask questions, predict and hypothesise (Byrne & Sharp, 2002)
    • Observe, measure, record and manipulate variables (Byrne & Sharpe, 2002)
    • Interpret results and evaluate scientific evidence
    • Explore alternatives, relationships, cause and effect and patterns (Byrne & Sharp, 2002)
    • Present and communicate findings (Byrne & Sharp, 2002)
    • Consolidate knowledge and understanding
    • Improve the accuracy and presentation of work
    • Allows editing and improvement of work
    • More easily changed and added to
    • Immediate, accurate and reliable readings
    • Allows a greater focus on interpretation
    • More can be achieved in the given time
    • Experience in searching and retrieving data
    • Adds enthusiasm
    • Promotes high level thinking skill
  10. The misuse of ICT in teaching

    Slide 10 - The misuse of ICT in teaching

    • Misuse of ICT
    • Teachers are not aware of available ICT
    • Teachers are not familiar with using ICT for learning
    • Teachers find technology difficult to use
    • Organisational / practical difficulties
    • Debate over whether ICT changes the way learners’ brains work
    • Focus on basic thinking and reasoning skills
    • Should not replace first-hand experiences
    • Being unable to carry out scientific investigations in a computer suite.
    • Displays may be too small to see clearly
    • ICT should not be used in place of resources children can interact with
    • Passive rather than active involvement
    • Overuse of some forms of ICT
    • ICT may not add enough challenge to activities
    • Sometimes used as a ‘bolt on’ activity
    • Does not always underpin the science or maths
  11. Many benefits and disadvantages of a cross-curricular approach.

    Slide 11 - Many benefits and disadvantages of a cross-curricular approach.

    • Teachers would say that creative cross-curricular teaching is best for children (Barnes, 2011).
    • Cross-curricular teaching needs to be good teaching in order to benefit pupils.
    • There are limitations.
    • Matching maths and science development may require discrete teaching in addition.
    • ICT skills may need to be taught separately also.
    • Must be used to enhance learning and not as a surplus to requirement.
  12. A combination of both discrete and cross-curricular approaches.

    Slide 12 - A combination of both discrete and cross-curricular approaches.

    • While Alexander et al (1992) and policy have tended towards discrete teaching, claiming that cross-curricular and theme approaches are poorly planned and executed, the report also admits that cross-curricular teaching is effective if taught well.
    • Rose (2009) suggests that subjects can be improved by discrete teaching and that effective learning can occur between subjects.
    • This is supported by Ofsted (2010) who claimed that raising standards in individual subjects was not compromised by good quality creative and cross-curricular teaching.
    • Depends on the confidence and subject knowledge of the teacher.
    • ICT can underpin science and maths if used well.