Desireee_Myers_Understanding Gender Identity

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Desireee_Myers_Understanding Gender Identity

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  1. Understanding Gender Identity

    Slide 2 - Understanding Gender Identity

    • Through Evaluating Theoretical Approaches on Gender Development
    • Biological Approaches
    • Evolutionary Psychology Approaches
    • Social Cognitive Approach
    • Desiree Myers
    • Professor Cullen-Carroll
    • Psychology 101: 14866
    • 27 March, 2015
    • Social
    • Role
    • Theory
  2. Biological

    Slide 3 - Biological

    • Approaches
    • Defining aspects of these approaches as outlined in Chapter 11 (King, 363)
    • Biological Sex
    • Properties determining classification: Male or Female
    • Variables Focused On
    • Genes
    • Prenatal Hormones
    • Brain Structures and functions
    • Psychological feelings of gender
    • Factors contribute:
    • Interaction with experience
    • Characteristics
    • Brief definition
    • Chromosomes
    • Sex “ ”
    • Humans have 23 pairs. One of each provided by each parent. 23rd determines persons sex.
    • Female: XX
    • Male: XY
    • Gonads
    • Glands that produce sex hormones.
    • Female: Generate ova in the ovaries
    • Male: Generate sperm in the testes.
    • Hormones
    • Chemicals produced by endocrine glands. Levels very by sex.
    • Female: Estrogen and progesterone are higher in women.
    • Male: Androgens (testosterone are higher in men.
    • Genitalia
    • External: Female: vulva: mons pubis, labia, clitoris
    • External: Male: Penis, Scrotum
    • Secondary Sex Characteristics
    • Puberty drive development. Not part of reproductive system.
    • Female: Breasts
    • Males: Facial hair
  3. Evolutionary Psychology

    Slide 4 - Evolutionary Psychology

    • Defining aspects of these approaches as outlined in Chapter 11 (King, 364- 365)
    • Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution
    • Sexual Selection
    • Reproductive Challenges
    • One gender competes the other chooses
    • Both sexes in humans have potential to be either the one who competes or chooses
    • Chooses: Invest the most time in producing offspring
    • Competes: The other sex
    • Both Genders face challenges but these challenges are different for each gender. As seen in the chart bellow
    • Gender
    • Biological Charatirstics
    • Reproduction Challenges
    • Women
    • Give Birth
    • Limited Time of Fertility
    • Reproduce only once per year
    • Men
    • Large and strong: survival instincts
    • Fertile from puberty on
    • Not knowing the child is his he doesn’t know right away if fertilization has occurred
  4. Social Cognitive

    Slide 5 - Social Cognitive

    • Defining aspects of these approaches as outlined in Chapter 11 (King, 365- 366) Essentials of Sociology (Giddens, 243)
    • Internalized Information about Gender
    • Environment Reinforces Gender Behavior
    • Reward, Punishment, Observational Learning, and Molding
    • Reward and
    • Molding
    • Acting in Gender Non conforming behaviors
    • Acting in accordance to expected Gender behavior
    • Punishment
    • and Molding
    • Gender Schema
    • “Cognitive Framework”: Children interpret further experiences related to gender
    • What is being Viewed at Home: Family Dynamic
    • Observational Learning
    • What Piers Saying
    • Teasing or Complementing
    • Reward/Punishment/Molding can all result
  5. Social Role Theory

    Slide 6 - Social Role Theory

    • Women give birth men do not. Men are stronger then women.
    • Innate Contributions to gender development
    • Defining aspects of these approaches as outlined in Chapter 11 (King, 366-367) Essentials of Sociology (Giddens, 243)
    • Division of Labor: Women stay home with children and Men go to work
    • Rise to expectations:
    • What a person “ought to do” and “can do” based on Gender
    • Gender Roles and Gender Stereotypes are Created
    • “As social structures change, gender differences should decrease – and this prediction has been born out (King, 367).”
    • “Social role theory asserts that thinking about men and women simply in terms of their sex misses big differences among people within each group. Indeed, in Eagly’s view, lumping people together according to their sex is essentially engaging in gender stereotyping (King, 367)”
  6. Work Cited

    Slide 7 - Work Cited

    • Giddens, Anthoney, Mitchell Duneier, Richard P. Appelbaum, and Deborah Carr. “The Sociology of the Body: Health, illness, and Sexuality.” Essentials of Sociology. Ed. Karl Bakeman. Third ed. New York: W.W. Norton &, 2011. 243, . Print.
    • King, Laura. “Chapter 11 Gender, Sex, and Sexuality.” Introduction to Psychology. N.p.: McGraw-Hill Education, 2014. 358-67. Print.