Ch 3 Native Americans 8-1.1

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Ch 3 Native Americans 8-1.1

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  1. South Carolina Native Americans

    Slide 1 - South Carolina Native Americans

    • SC History
    • 8-1.1
    • Summarize the collective and individual aspects of the Native American culture of the Eastern Woodlands tribal group, including the Catawba, Cherokee, and Yemassee.
  2. South Carolina Native Americans

    Slide 2 - South Carolina Native Americans

    • Chapter 3
    • Prehistory-Native Americans in America
    • 1350-1500 European Renaissance
    • 1492 Columbus Arrives in America
    • 1527 Spain settlement at San Miguel de Gualdape near Georgetown, SC
    • 1562 France settlement at Charles Fort near Port Royal, SC
  3. South Carolina Native Americans

    Slide 3 - South Carolina Native Americans

    • American Indian Eras
    • Paleo Indians (10,000 B.C.)
    • Hunter gatherers – hunted large herd animals/gathered plants for food
    • Used projectile points attached to spears & stone tools
    • Were NOT farmers
    • Archaic Indians (8,000-2,000 B.C.)
    • Became less nomadic-more settled
    • Large animals (mammoth/camels) disappeared, hunted smaller animals (raccoon, turkey, deer, fish, shellfish, turtles…)
    • Change in tools – smaller spear points, fishing hooks from bone, grinding bowl
    • Developed pottery = food storage & closer to creation of village
    • Chapter 3
  4. South Carolina Native Americans

    Slide 4 - South Carolina Native Americans

    • American Indian Eras
    • Woodland Indians (1000 B.C.)
    • Development of Agriculture (domestication of plants) & Villages
    • Farming, Hunting, and Gathering food
    • Population increased
    • Mississippian Indians (700 A.D.)
    • Last prehistoric era
    • Villages with mounds were common
    • 100 feet high & surrounded by palisades (12-20ft high fence w/ pointed stakes)
    • Burial place
    • On top were public buildings, temples, and where the chieftain lived
    • Hieroglyphics (picture symbols representing sounds, meanings, & ideas)
    • Chapter 3
  5. SC Native Americans

    Slide 6 - SC Native Americans

    • SC Native American Tribes
    • Were different based on the regions in which they lived & the natural resources available
    • Cherokee - Blue Ridge & Piedmont Regions
    • Catawba – Piedmont Region
    • Yemassee – Coastal Zone
    • Cherokee
    • Catawba
    • Yemassee
    • Chapter 3
  6. SC Native Americans

    Slide 8 - SC Native Americans

    • Natural Resources
    • Rocks, Minerals, Rivers, Plants, & Animals
    • Are different in each geographic region of SC
    • Had an affect on diet, housing, & travel
    • The Yemassee had oyster shells and sea- grass, which the Cherokee & Catawba did not have.
    • Chapter 3
  7. SC Native Americans

    Slide 9 - SC Native Americans

    • Natural Resources
    • Wood & Animal Skins were natural resources found in all of the regions
    • ALL 3 South Carolina tribes used wood to build houses, canoes, weapons, & tools
    • Animal skins had a variety of uses
    • Wigwam roof
    • Chapter 3
  8. SC Native Americans

    Slide 10 - SC Native Americans

    • Rock, wood, bone, shells, and animal skin were all used for tools, weapons, and building supplies.
    • Rock and animal bone were commonly used for sharp points for hunting and bows and arrows.
    • Tree bark and animal skins were used to make houses
    • The Cherokee lived in wattle and daub style houses of sticks and mud.
    • The Catawba and Yemassee lived in wigwams of tree bark and deer skins.
    • Chapter 3
  9. The Catawba and Yemassee used a style of house called a wigwam.

    Slide 11 - The Catawba and Yemassee used a style of house called a wigwam.

    • SC Native Americans
    • Housing
    • wattle & daub
    • grass or wood woven together & covered in mud
    • Rectangular summer house
    • A winter house was round & conical
    • Cherokee
    • Chapter 3
  10. Cherokee…define

    Slide 12 - Cherokee…define

    • Catawba and Yemassee…define
    • Upon which natural resource did all 3 groups rely to build their homes?
  11. SC Native AmericansNatural Resources

    Slide 13 - SC Native AmericansNatural Resources

    • Native American villages were often found near water sources – Rivers
    • Drinking, farming, food, and transportation
    • The rolling hills and red-yellow clay, made the land fertile and ideal to develop farming
    • Chapter 3
  12. SC Native AmericansWeapons & Tools

    Slide 16 - SC Native AmericansWeapons & Tools

    • Smaller harder rock - used as drills
    • for making holes in wood, shells, and other types of stone
    • Rock used to create farming tools (Garden hoe) and mortars
    • Shells were carved down to create a sharp edge used for scraping
    • Shells and bones were used to make combs, jewelry, awls and other tools.
    • Awl: instrument used to poke holes in animal skins for sewing
    • Chapter 3
  13. How was fire used as a tool?

    Slide 17 - How was fire used as a tool?

  14. Fire -used as a tool

    Slide 18 - Fire -used as a tool

    • Used to drive out animals for hunting
    • To clear a field for farming
    • cut trees and burned the brush to create farmland
    • Burn out a log to make a canoe
    • SC Native AmericansWeapons & Tools
    • Chapter 3
  15. The entire region from the Mississippi River to the Atlantic Ocean and up to the Great Lakes is know as…?

    Slide 19 - The entire region from the Mississippi River to the Atlantic Ocean and up to the Great Lakes is know as…?

  16. Slide 20

    • Eastern because of the East Coast
    • Woodland because of all the forests
    • Hunters & Farmers
    • Mississippian
    • SC Native Americans
    • Eastern Woodland Indians
    • Chapter 3
  17. Mounds were used by the Native Americans for what four reasons?

    Slide 21 - Mounds were used by the Native Americans for what four reasons?

  18. mound builders

    Slide 22 - mound builders

    • Mounds were used for a variety of reasons:
    • burial places
    • public buildings
    • temples/ceremonial sites
    • houses of the chieftain
    • Mississippian
    • Sautee Nacoochee Valley, GA, Cherokee burial mound
    • Remains of a shell mound, Edisto, SC
    • SC Native Americans
    • Villages
    • Chapter 3
  19. Name the Native American group that had the most advanced government in South Carolina.

    Slide 23 - Name the Native American group that had the most advanced government in South Carolina.

  20. SC Native AmericansVillages

    Slide 24 - SC Native AmericansVillages

    • Chapter 3
    • Government
    • Cherokee had the most advanced
    • 7 sided tribal house
    • Usually located on a mound
    • Cherokee had representatives from each of the 7 clans meet in the council house with the chieftain
    • Made decisions for the tribe
  21. List the language group for each of the three main tribes in South Carolina.

    Slide 25 - List the language group for each of the three main tribes in South Carolina.

    • Cherokee =
    • Catawba =
    • Yemassee =
  22. SC Native AmericansCulture

    Slide 26 - SC Native AmericansCulture

    • 3 Tribes = 3 Language Groups
    • Cherokee - an Iroquoian language group
    • - Did NOT have a written language until early 1800’s
    • Catawba – Siouan language group
    • Yemassee – Muskogean language group
    • - Historians know very little about the Yemassee
    • - A violent tribe
    • - Did not allow observers near to document actions
    • Chapter 3
  23. SC Native Americans

    Slide 27 - SC Native Americans

    • Villages
    • Chapter 3
    • Always located near a water source:
    • Rivers
    • Springs
    • Stream
    • Ocean
    • Palisades - surrounded by tall wooden posts that were sharpened on top
    • Farming was usually done outside the palisades
    • The open space in the middle of the village was used for sports
    • Lacrosse
  24. What was the Native American attitude toward land ownership?

    Slide 28 - What was the Native American attitude toward land ownership?

  25. SC Native AmericansCulture

    Slide 29 - SC Native AmericansCulture

    • Chapter 3
    • Communal environment
    • All hunted and worked to harvest the food
    • Shared by everyone in the village
    • They used all parts of the animal that they killed, for example an animal’s bladder was used to store and carry water.
    • Land
    • Belonged to everyone
    • Could not be owned by one person
    • Would eventually cause problems with the European Settlers
  26. Two methods in which the Native Americans got their food

    Slide 30 - Two methods in which the Native Americans got their food

  27. SC Native American Diet

    Slide 31 - SC Native American Diet

    • Very Simple
    • Yemassee (Low Country/Coast)
    • seafood, wild game, and gathered nuts and berries
    • Cherokee & Catawba
    • Hunted wild game
    • Used wooden fish traps to catch fish in rivers and streams
    • Gathered seeds, nuts, and berries
    • Eventually farmed
    • Fertile soil & domestication of plants
    • Easier than hunting/gathering
    • Fish Trap
    • SC Native AmericansCulture
    • Chapter 3
    • Possible Yemassee village appearance
  28. Describe the “three sisters”.

    Slide 32 - Describe the “three sisters”.

    • Draw an illustration
  29. SC Native AmericansCulture

    Slide 33 - SC Native AmericansCulture

    • Chapter 3
    • The Most Important crops:
    • Corn
    • Pole beans
    • Squash
    • Together, these crops are known as “The 3 Sisters”
    • Used corn stalks as poles for the beans
    • Grew crops of pumpkins and bottle gourds
    • Tobacco was grown in rows on separate plots
    • Corn was easily dried and kept for winter food.
    • Gourds were used for bowls and to carry water.
  30. SC Native AmericansVillages

    Slide 34 - SC Native AmericansVillages

    • Chapter 3
    • Cofitachequi
    • SC Indian town near the Savannah River
    • Ruled by women
    • Rich Indian village
    • Large trade network in Coastal Plain
    • Large quantities of:
    • Clothing, deerskins, shoes, pearls, & figures made from pearls
  31. At first contact, Native Americans got along well with European settlers.

    Slide 35 - At first contact, Native Americans got along well with European settlers.

    • Because Native Americans viewed the land as belonging to everyone, they were very willing to share food and resources with struggling colonists.
    • European Contact
    • SC Native AmericansCulture
    • Chapter 3
    • Did not take long to change!!
  32. SC Native AmericansCulture

    Slide 36 - SC Native AmericansCulture

    • Chapter 3
    • Europeans
    • Thought American Indians to be crude, savage, & uncivilized
    • Mistreated the Indians and took their land & lives
    • Indians were enslaved
    • Some males shipped to West Indies
    • Native Americans had to fight for survival against disease, wars, and cultural destruction