Aggression & Violence in Marriage

Lecture for Advanced Marriage and Family Class

Clinical Psychology
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Aggression & Violence in Marriage

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Lecture for Advanced Marriage and Family Class
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  1. Aggression & Violence in Intimate Partnerships

    Slide 1 - Aggression & Violence in Intimate Partnerships

    • Jennifer S. Ripley, Ph.D.
    • Psychology
  2. Rates of Violence in Marriage

    Slide 2 - Rates of Violence in Marriage

    • 1 in 8 husbands was violent towards the wife in past year; 1 in 6, at Regent found 7 violent couples in studies of 45 couples
    • 1.8 million wives are beaten by spouse each year (Straus & Gelles, 1990)
    • O’Leary et al (1989) found 31% of men and 44% of women reported being physically aggressive in the year prior to marriage
  3. Rates of Violence & Aggresssion

    Slide 3 - Rates of Violence & Aggresssion

    • Highest in first 30 months of marriage, but continue after
    • If a partner has been violent in the past, there is a 46-72% chance that he/she would have used violence in follow-up study
    • Many couples appear to escalate in violence over time, although longitudinal studies of violent couples have not been reported in the literature
  4. Violence

    Slide 4 - Violence

    • The APA Task Force on Violence and the Family ( APA, 1996/2005 ) defined domestic violence as including a range of physical, sexual, and emotional maltreatment by one family member against another; according to this definition, the term family includes a variety of relationships beyond those of blood or marriage, in recognition that similar dynamics of abuse may occur in these relationships.
  5. Resolution on male violence against women- APA

    Slide 5 - Resolution on male violence against women- APA

    • http://www.apa.org/about/policy/male-violence.aspx 1994 document and updates.
    • Male-perpetrated violence is a major cause of fear, distress, injury, and even death for women. Such violence crosses the lines of ethnicity, economic status, and age…During the past two decades, scholarly, public, and policy attention to this social problem has increased dramatically, and a number of important national policy reports have identified violence against women as a critical economic, criminal justice, and public health issue (American Psychological Association Task Force on Male Violence Against Women, 1994). By the most conservative estimates, almost 1,000,000 women experience violent victimization by an intimate each year. In 1993, roughly 1,300 women in the United States were reported to have been murdered by partners or former partners, and this reported total is likely an underestimate since the relationship between victim and perpetrator is often not identified (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1998).
  6. Intimate partner violence

    Slide 6 - Intimate partner violence

    • http://apa.org/about/awards/partner-violence.pdf
    • Curriculum in IPV
    • Prevalence, Causal models, mediating variables, risk and vulnerability factors
  7. Constructs studied in relationship to vulnerability

    Slide 7 - Constructs studied in relationship to vulnerability

    • • Being female
    • Past victimization
    • Growing up in a violent home
    • Exposure to chronic trauma
    • Substance abuse
    • Personality/attitudes
    • Self-image
    • Shame
  8. Factors why women don’t leave

    Slide 8 - Factors why women don’t leave

    • Power differentials
    • Kin density for Latinos
    • Public exposure with consequences
    • Fear of disclosure of sexual orientation
    • Learned hopefulness/learned helplessness
    • Economic constraints
    • Fear of being hurt seriously or killed
    • Fear of losing children
    • Psychological dependency
  9. Gender & Violence

    Slide 9 - Gender & Violence

    • Violence occurs both ways, husband to wife and wife to husband.
    • Husband to wife violence results in more negative outcomes than vice versa.
    • In 71% of violent fights, the woman engages in the first physically violent act (Dutton, 1988, 1995a,b)
    • Bonnie & Clyde is more typical than “helpless battered women”
    • Men use violence to terrorize and subdue
  10. Assessing Violence

    Slide 10 - Assessing Violence

    • Specific and Behavioral
    • CDC compendium: http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/pub-res/IPV_Compendium.pdf
    • Physical victimization
    • Sexual victimization
    • Psychological/emotional victimization
    • Stalking
  11. CTS-2

    Slide 11 - CTS-2

  12. Violent Marriages

    Slide 12 - Violent Marriages

    • Exaggeration of processes of influence/power and resistance to change.
    • The violent male will not accept influence from his wife, even if she makes a very reasonable request.
  13. Different types

    Slide 13 - Different types

    • Violence intended for intimidation, control and fear of partner
    • Physical aggression in which it is mutual and not severe (pushing, slapping and shoving…)
  14. Greater impact of men’s aggression

    Slide 14 - Greater impact of men’s aggression

    • Fear- Fear is a good predictor of future violence among 25 risk factors (Weisz et al 2000)
    • Injury- women more likely to need medical care (24% women, 3% men)
    • Sexual Coercion- males engage in more
    • Partner Homicide- 1998: 1317 female victims of IPV and 512 male (latest data)
  15. Interventions

    Slide 15 - Interventions

    • Aldarondo and Mederos (2002) recommend the following factors to do couples tx with aggression
    • Abused partner given all other options
    • Male violence is few incidents of minor
    • Psychology abuse is infrequent and mild
    • No risk factors for lethality
    • Male admits and takes responsibility
    • Abusive male unshakable commitment to refrain from abuse/intimidation even if provoked
    • Victim interviewed privately that she is not afraid to speak honestly without retaliation
  16. Research on Interventions for Marital Violence

    Slide 16 - Research on Interventions for Marital Violence

    • The effects of arrest
    • Minneapolis study of 300 cases of misdemeanor domestic assault. Appears to be an effective deterrent to violence. The US Attorney General’s Task Force on Domestic Violence (1984)’s recommendation that arrest be standard treatment was based on this study
    • 84% of large city police forces had adopted this policy by the mid-1990s
    • Replication of study can be found in Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, Vol 83, No 1, 1992
  17. Subsequent Studies

    Slide 17 - Subsequent Studies

    • Sherman (1992) found that arrests have different effects on different abusers. Men who were socially marginalized were less affected by arrest than “socially bonded” men, actually making them more violent
    • Data”consistently show arrest to make those with less stake in conformity more violent, and those with more stake in conformity less violent” (p.160)
  18. Subsequent Studies

    Slide 18 - Subsequent Studies

    • Comparison of arrest to other police deterrents (advice, issue citation or arrest) have found no significant difference between the three groups (Hirschel & Hutchison, 1992) 600 cases
    • Berk et al (1992) found that arrest was a good deterrent for employed offenders but a “bad risk” for unemployed offenders.
    • Since the original Minneapolis study, no study has replicated the result of an overall deterrent effect of arrest relative to other police interventions. Short arrest may actually increase violence. However, arrest can deter if men have “something to lose” such as a job or social ties.
  19. Psychological Treatment

    Slide 19 - Psychological Treatment

    • Few methodologically sound studies have examined treatment. None compare conjoint with individual therapy. Most studies examine group treatment for male batterers.
    • There are severe differences between agencies that serve abused women, batterers, and M&F agencies
  20. Long-term treatment

    Slide 20 - Long-term treatment

    • On the other hand, D. Dutton (1995) and Hamberger and Ambuel (1997) found the best results in stopping men from using violence with those who attended a minimum of a two-year program. D. Dutton's research suggests that many of these batterers have serious mental illnesses in addition to their problems with power and control that underly their use of violence.
  21. Wrap around treatment

    Slide 21 - Wrap around treatment

    • Deschner & McNeil (1986) compared gender specific and couples group tx. Anger control was focus of treatment. Good completion rates but no difference across groups in violence.
    • But many clinicians feel gender based or individual treatment is needed?
  22. Rosenfeld (1992)

    Slide 22 - Rosenfeld (1992)

    • Review of 25 outcomes studies
    • 27% recidivism rate at follow-up
    • Men who engage in treatment have either no difference or only a slight difference compared with those that refuse or do not engage in treatment
    • Programs that focus exclusively on anger control may be more detrimental than helpful, compared with programs that address spousal control issues
  23. Research

    Slide 23 - Research

    • Corsi (1999); Dutton 1995
    • Interventions that use both psychological intervention and psychoeducational sex-role resocialization are showing efficacy
    • Need to address the different typology of batterer (something to lose or not)
  24. Oleary and Cohen 2006

    Slide 24 - Oleary and Cohen 2006

    • Sequencing of individual first then couple treatment of IPV was finding better results. Anger issues addressed individually and if judged ready, then couple-based treatment.
    • Found anger issues do need to be focus of treatment and not just power. But samples are very small…stat power is low…
  25. Doss, Thum, Sevier, Atkins & Christensen 2005

    Slide 25 - Doss, Thum, Sevier, Atkins & Christensen 2005

    • Mild common couples violence large scale clinical trail study.
    • Compared Integrative BCT with CBCT
    • Psychological aggression decreased, no change in physical aggression (low incidence levels)
    • No difference between groups
  26. Alcohol and IPV

    Slide 26 - Alcohol and IPV

    • Small but linear relationship between alcohol use and IPV for men (O’Leary and Woodin, 2005)
    • Treating the alcohol use can have a boomerang on the IPV
    • But specific IPV treatment may also be needed
  27. Review

    Slide 27 - Review

    • The prevalence of violence in marriages is very high, major public health problem
    • While women are often violent, it is husbands who cause the most damage with violence
    • Legal intervention is effective for those with some stake in not being involved in legal problems
    • Psychological interventions are beginning to develop to address IPV but the research is still very limited