Forms & Systems of Government
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Slide 1 - Forms & Systems of Government
- SS.7.C.3.1 – Compare different forms of government
- SS.7.C.3.2 – compare parliamentary, federal, confederal, and unitary systems of government.
Slide 2 - Why does a government have a form?
- There are multiple factors that contribute to how we understand governments. One approach is to consider the form of government which is also understood as the structure of government. All governments, no matter their structure (or form) enjoy three powers: the power to create laws (legislative), the power to enforce laws (executive) and the power to adjudicate laws (judicial). The way that those powers are organized determines the form of government.
Slide 3 - And what about systems of government?
- Government systems, by contrast, are the rules focusing on how a government functions. Two governments may share the same form while they differ as to their type of government system.
Slide 4 - Well… why do we compare them?
- Comparing forms and systems of government enables one to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of each as to the effectiveness of each of the powers of government within those forms and systems, and the role of citizens within those forms and systems
Slide 5 - Forms of government
- Who is in charge?
- Who makes laws?
- Who enforces laws?
- Who interprets laws?
Slide 6 - Anarchy….. Yes I know it’s the Purge! /smh
- Anarchy is the absence of any form of government
- While it might seem fun at first, it quickly becomes dangerous and turns back into the state of nature we learned about from Thomas Hobbes.
- State of Nature – we all want things to survive and will fight to remain alive.
- Yes this means it isn’t fun for long!
Slide 7 - DEMOCRACY – WHAT IS IT?
- Any form of government in which political power is exercised by all citizens, either directly or through representatives.
Slide 8 - Direct Democracy
- In a direct democracy all citizens have a chance to participate.
- The people get to vote on all laws and govern their society.
- All citizens can try and create new laws
- The best example of direct democracy was ancient Athens where large assemblies of citizens got together to pass new laws.
Slide 9 - Representative Democracy
- A government of the people, however the people choose representatives to speak for them.
- These elected officials create the laws in a country.
- These people are suppose to mirror the wishes of those people who elected them.
- Regular elections are held.
- Bound by a constitution.
- Our government most closely resembles a representatives democracy.
Slide 10 - AUTOcracy – what is it?
- A form of government in which political power is controlled by one individual such as a monarch, dictator, emperor, etc.
Slide 11 - Monarchy
- Led by royalty. (King, queen, prince, princess, etc.)
- A person normally gains power because their parents were also ruler(s).
- Some monarchies have constitutions, while others do not.
- Any leader of a monarchy can be a MONARCH.
- Examples include modern day Spain and Japan.
Slide 12 - Dictatorship
- Power is not inherited from parents like a monarchy, but usually taken by force.
- The person in charge has total control over the lives of citizens.
- Because the dictator has absolute power, normally anyone who opposes what is going on is prevented from voicing their opinions.
- A modern day example would be North Korea.
Slide 13 - Theocracy
- A country that is ruled by god or some higher power.
- Normally run by a religious leader who leads society and resolves fights.
- The modern day example of a theocracy is the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Slide 14 - Oligarchy
- Used to be referred to as the “rule by the rich,” but really means “rule by the few.”
- A few people hold power through
- Military strength
- Family power
- Or other forms of government like monarchies and dictatorships
Slide 15 - Socialism
- A classless society where everyone is equal, and works as a collective to plan for the long term.
- Government owns many industries to protect the future of everyone.
- Central planners take money from the rich and redistribute it evenly.
- Long term planning to keep everyone equal.
Slide 16 - Communism
- Takes socialism one step further, everything is owned by the government.
- Normally run by a single ruling party
- They control the production and distribution of goods.
- No private ownership is allowed.
- Russia is an example of a modern communist country.
Slide 17 - Systems of government
- How is power distributed?
- How is a government layered?
- Do all laws apply to all people?
Slide 18 - Unitary systems
- Almost all power is kept in the central government.
- Most common is countries where the population is very similar with ideas, language, and traditions.
- The national government performs all governmental functions.
- Local governments take care of very minor things, and are given power from the national government.
- National government is in charge of almost all taxing and creating laws.
Slide 19 - Federal systems
- More common among larger populations who are very diverse.
- This is a layered system of government
- The United States is an example of a federal system.
- We have various levels of government: federal, state, and local.
- We see this when we look at each branch. Example: president, governor, mayor.
Slide 20 - Parliamentary systems
- The power of the government is held by the legislative body and the leader is part of the legislature.
- Citizens elect officials through political parties.
- Citizens select their party preference, and the party chooses who will represent them in government.
- The percentage of following a party receives, dictates how many representatives they get to select.
Slide 21 - Confederal systems
- Loosely joined independent states to a create a weak central government. Weakest central government of all the systems.
- The central government only exists because of the members that create it.
- Almost all powers remain with states, and the central government gets the minimum it needs to operate.
- Individual stats retain the power to tax and make laws.
- The central government acts as a mediator between the states.
- The central government represents the states with other countries, but its actions must be approved by the countries.
Slide 22 - APPLICATION & Assessment
- Make sure to finish:
- WKBK Pages 61 – 63 for forms of government
- WKBK Pages 67 & 69 for systems of government
- March 19 & 20