The Pancreas

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The Pancreas

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  1. The Pancreas

    Slide 1 - The Pancreas

    • By: Will Stevens, Laura mcguigan, and Jennifer Shaw
  2. Pancreas Anatomy

    Slide 2 - Pancreas Anatomy

    • Location: located posterior to the greater curvature of the stomach
    • Pancreatic Juice: Clear colorless liquid composed mainly of water but includes enzymes, some salts, and sodium bicarbonate. No digestion happens in the pancreas
    • Slightly alkaline pH (7.1 – 8.2)
    • Each day 1200 – 1500 mL are produced
    • Pancreatic Juice aids in the digestion of several proteins
  3. Pancreas Anatomy

    Slide 3 - Pancreas Anatomy

    • Pancreatic Ducts: transport pancreatic juices from pancreas to small intestines
    • 2 Branches
    • Pancreatic Duct (duct of Wirsung): Larger of the two branches. Joins the common bile duct and enters the duodenum as one duct through the Hepatopancreatic Ampulla
    • Accessory Duct (duct of Santorini): Smaller of two ducts. Goes from pancreas to duodenum superior to the hepatopancreatic ampulla
  4. Pancreas Histology

    Slide 4 - Pancreas Histology

    • Acini: small cluster of glandular epithelial cells.
    • Make up the exocrine part of the Pancreas
    • 99% of the clusters of cells in the Pancreas
    • Secrete pancreatic juices
    • Pancreatic islets: small cluster of glandular epithelial cells.
    • Make up the endocrine part of the Pancreas
    • 1% of the clusters of cells in the Pancreas
    • Secrete the hormones glucagon, insulin, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide
  5. Pancreatic Amylase and Proteases

    Slide 5 - Pancreatic Amylase and Proteases

    • Pancreatic amylase: enzyme in pancreatic juice that digests starch and glycogen into maltose, maltotriose, and alphadextrins
    • Secreted from pancreas to duodenum
    • Pancreatic Proteases: trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase, elastase
    • Protein digesting enzymes are produced inactive
    • Digests proteins into peptides
    • Enzymes that are released into the small intestine by the pancreatic duct
  6. Pancreatic Lipase and Nucleases

    Slide 6 - Pancreatic Lipase and Nucleases

    • Pancreatic lipase: principal triglyceride-digesting enzyme in adults
    • Comes from the pancreatic juice but doesn't need to undergo conversions (like trypsin or chymotrypsin) in order to digest lipids
    • Pancreatic nucleases: ribonuclease and deoxyribonuclease
    • Nucleic acid digesting enzymes
    • Digests RNA and DNA into nucleotides
  7. Pancreatic Disorders

    Slide 7 - Pancreatic Disorders

    • Pancreatitis: Inflammation of pancreas.
    • Caused by pancreas releasing trypsin instead of typsinogen or there isn’t enough trypsin inhibitor
    • Causes the pancreas to be digested by trypsin
    • Factors contributing to it include: High levels of calcium in blood, high levels of fat in the blood, some drugs, and some autoimmune conditions
    • Number one risk factor is alcoholism
    • Pancreatic Cancer: Cancer of the pancreas.
    • Most common in people 50 or older males
    • Few symptoms until advanced stage making it quite fatal
    • 4th leading cause of death from cancer in US
  8. Disorder Diagnosis and Treatment

    Slide 8 - Disorder Diagnosis and Treatment