Lesson 2-CARBON AND ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES

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Lesson 2-CARBON AND ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES

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  1. CARBON AND ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES

    Slide 1 - CARBON AND ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES

  2. Review

    Slide 2 - Review

    • Elements are pure substances; the most important elements to life and living things are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur (CHONPS)
    • A compound contains two or more elements. Water (H20) is one of the most important compounds for life!
    • pH is a measure of how acidic (0-6) or basic (8-14) a substance is. Most living things prefer a neutral pH (7).
  3. What Chemical Element is Found in ALL Living Things?

    Slide 3 - What Chemical Element is Found in ALL Living Things?

    • All chemical compounds that contain carbon are called organic compounds. Today, “organic” is also used to describe substances used by living things.
    • CARBON (C)
  4. What Makes Carbon So Special?

    Slide 4 - What Makes Carbon So Special?

    • 1. A single carbon atom has the ability to bond with four other atoms.
    • 2. Carbon atoms can bond to other carbon atoms, meaning it can form “chains” of many lengths.
    • 3. Carbon chains can fold to form rings.
    • Carbon compounds are extremely diverse!
  5. MACROMOLECULES: “Chemicals of Life”

    Slide 5 - MACROMOLECULES: “Chemicals of Life”

    • Many carbon-based molecules are so large that they are classified as macromolecules .
    • Many macromolecules are described as polymers, because they are made of long chains of repeating subunits (think beads on a string). These large molecules are made of smaller subunits, or “building blocks” called monomers. The making and breaking down of polymers involves two important reactions:
  6. Making and Breaking Down Polymers: Two Reactions

    Slide 7 - Making and Breaking Down Polymers: Two Reactions

    • HYDROLYSIS
    • DEHYDRATION
  7. FOUR CLASSES OF MACROMOLECULES:

    Slide 8 - FOUR CLASSES OF MACROMOLECULES:

    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Nucleic Acids
    • Proteins