Regulasi Hormon - Hormone Regulation

Kuliah mengenai regulasi hormon, bagaimana hormon dihasilkan dan bagaimana sel saling berinteraksi. Kuliah ini dipublish tanpa seizin dan sepengetahuan pembuat kuliah. Hanya sebagai bahan belajar saja. Jangan dicopy-paste atau diakui karya pribadi. Terimakasih

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Regulasi Hormon - Hormone Regulation

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Kuliah mengenai regulasi hormon, bagaimana hormon dihasilkan dan bagaimana sel saling berinteraksi. Kuliah ini dipublish tanpa seizin dan sepengetahuan pembuat kuliah. Hanya sebagai bahan belajar saja. Jangan dicopy-paste atau diakui karya pribadi. Terimakasih
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Slide Content
  1. Regulation of Metabolism

    Slide 1 - Regulation of Metabolism

    • How does the body know when to increase metabolism? Slow metabolism?
    • What might be some indicators of energy status within the cell?
    • Requires communication
    • Works through allosteric regulation of enzyme activity
  2. Figure 6-1 - Overview

    Slide 2 - Figure 6-1 - Overview

    • Mechanisms of Cellular Communication
  3. Figure 6-2b

    Slide 3 - Figure 6-2b

  4. Figure 6-2c

    Slide 4 - Figure 6-2c

  5. Figure 6-2a

    Slide 5 - Figure 6-2a

  6. What Hormones Regulate Metabolism?

    Slide 6 - What Hormones Regulate Metabolism?

    • Insulin
    • Glucagon
    • Thyroid hormone
    • Cortisol
    • Epinephrine
    • Most regulation occurs in order to maintain stable blood glucose concentrations for supplying fuel to the brain!
  7. Figure 6-3

    Slide 7 - Figure 6-3

    • Protein or peptide hormone
    • Almost always proteins called kinases
    • Activation/inactivation of an enzyme; opening/closing a membrane channel; activating a transcription factor
  8. Figure 6-4 (2 of 3)

    Slide 8 - Figure 6-4 (2 of 3)

    • Steroid Hormones
    • (examples: cortisol, testosterone, estrogen
  9. Figure 6-4 (3 of 3)

    Slide 9 - Figure 6-4 (3 of 3)

    • Protein/peptide hormones
    • (examples: epinephrine, insulin, glucagon, oxytocin)
  10. Figure 6-5

    Slide 10 - Figure 6-5

  11. Figure 6-7

    Slide 11 - Figure 6-7

    • Amplification
    • What are some advantages to having an amplified signal?
    • What might be some disadvantages?
  12. Figure 6-8

    Slide 12 - Figure 6-8

    • How is the signal from the hormone (signal molecule) binding to the receptor transmitted into the interior of the cell?
  13. Table 6-1

    Slide 13 - Table 6-1

  14. Table 6-2

    Slide 14 - Table 6-2

  15. Figure 6-10

    Slide 15 - Figure 6-10

    • Insulin works through a tyrosine kinase (TK) receptor mechanism
    • Insulin from b cells of the pancreas
  16. Figure taken from:  http://www.smbs.buffalo.edu/bch/Courses/bch404/GW_Nature_InsulinSig.pdf#search=%22GLUT4%20vesicles%20micrograph%22

    Slide 16 - Figure taken from: http://www.smbs.buffalo.edu/bch/Courses/bch404/GW_Nature_InsulinSig.pdf#search=%22GLUT4%20vesicles%20micrograph%22

    • Insulin regulation of glucose entry in skeletal muscle
    • *Overall insulin promotes storage of glucose as a fuel and a reduction of blood glucose when elevated
  17. Insulin regulation of glucose metabolism in the liver

    Slide 17 - Insulin regulation of glucose metabolism in the liver

    • Figure taken from: http://www.smbs.buffalo.edu/bch/Courses/bch404/GW_Nature_InsulinSig.pdf#search=%22GLUT4%20vesicles%20micrograph%22
  18. Figure taken from:  http://www.smbs.buffalo.edu/bch/Courses/bch404/GW_Nature_InsulinSig.pdf#search=%22GLUT4%20vesicles%20micrograph%22

    Slide 18 - Figure taken from: http://www.smbs.buffalo.edu/bch/Courses/bch404/GW_Nature_InsulinSig.pdf#search=%22GLUT4%20vesicles%20micrograph%22

  19. Major Effects of Insulin

    Slide 19 - Major Effects of Insulin

    • Skeletal muscle takes up glucose from blood
    • Liver takes up glucose, increases glycogen production
    • Liver increases fatty acid synthesis when its glycogen stores are full
    • Adipose takes up blood glucose and fatty acid breakdown is inhibited
    • Overall insulin has a fat sparing action. It works to store excess energy
  20. Figure 6-11 - Overview

    Slide 20 - Figure 6-11 - Overview

    • Mechanism of action for glucagon
    • Glucagon from a cells of pancreas
  21. Figure from: http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/pancreas/glucagon.html

    Slide 21 - Figure from: http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/pancreas/glucagon.html

    • Major effects of glucagon:
    • Stimulates breakdown of glycogen stored in the liver
    • Activates hepatic gluconeogenesis (using amino acids and other non-carbohydrate precursors)
    • Overall the effects of glucagon are to increase blood glucose when it is low
  22. Slide 22

    • Lactate from muscle
    • (Cori Cycle)
    • Glucogenic amino acids
    • Figure taken from: http://web.indstate.edu/thcme/mwking/gluconeogenesis.html
  23. Figure taken from:  http://web.indstate.edu/thcme/mwking/gluconeogenesis.html

    Slide 23 - Figure taken from: http://web.indstate.edu/thcme/mwking/gluconeogenesis.html

  24. Figure 6-12 - Overview

    Slide 24 - Figure 6-12 - Overview

    • Thyroid releasing hormone/Thyroid stimulating hormone/Thyroid hormone
    • Hypothalamus Anterior pituitary Thyroid gland
  25. Figure taken from:  http://www.nature.com/ncpendmet/journal/v1/n1/fig_tab/ncpendmet0020_F1.html

    Slide 25 - Figure taken from: http://www.nature.com/ncpendmet/journal/v1/n1/fig_tab/ncpendmet0020_F1.html

    • Increased metabolic rate and heat production
    • Increased fat mobilization
    • Increased carbohydrate metabolism
  26. Figure 6-15

    Slide 26 - Figure 6-15

    • Epinephrine works on cells via Ca2+ as a second messenger
    • Increases glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis
    • Increases release of glucagon and cortisol
  27. Phosphorylation of glycogen phosphorylase; increases breakdown of glycogen in liver

    Slide 27 - Phosphorylation of glycogen phosphorylase; increases breakdown of glycogen in liver

    • Epinephrine can also work via the cAMP signal transduction pathway
  28. Test Your Knowledge

    Slide 28 - Test Your Knowledge

    • The major hormones that promote glucose release into the blood are:
    • The major hormones that promote storage of glucose are:
    • A hepatic cell has receptors for epinephrine, glucagon, and insulin. These hormones may or may not act in concert to produce a desired effect. How does the hepatocyte know what to do?
    • What are the major second messenger systems used by the hormones that regulate blood glucose? What is the end result of activation of these second messenger systems?
  29. Figure 6-14

    Slide 29 - Figure 6-14

  30. Figure 6-16

    Slide 30 - Figure 6-16

  31. Figure 6-17

    Slide 31 - Figure 6-17

  32. Table 6-3

    Slide 32 - Table 6-3

  33. Table 6-5

    Slide 33 - Table 6-5