Princeton - Cold War Notes

World History

Princeton - Cold War Notes

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  1. The Cold War

    Slide 1 - The Cold War

    • 1945 - 1991
  2. Terminology

    Slide 2 - Terminology

    • Cold War - the political and strategic maneuvering of the USA & the USSR without direct engagement between the two superpowers
    • Superpower - used to distinguish those countries with global influence when compared to great powers with limited resources
  3. Cold War

    Slide 3 - Cold War

    • 1947-1991
    • Between Soviet Union and the U.S.
    • Usually refrained from armed conflict
  4. Slide 4

    • Resettlement and rebuilding after WWII was expensive and complex
  5. International Monetary System

    Slide 5 - International Monetary System

    • IMF – financed temporary trade deficits
    • World Bank – provided funds for reconstruction
    • Soviet Union resisted by establishing a closed monetary system
  6. Marshall Plan

    Slide 6 - Marshall Plan

    • designed to rebuild European economies through capitalism and cooperation
    • U.S. gave $12.5 billion to reconstruct western Europe
    • Soviets refused to allow eastern European nations to participate
  7. European Economic Community

    Slide 8 - European Economic Community

    • European gov’ts nationalized industries
    • Lowered tariffs  increased trade
    • Increased wages & social welfare
  8. United Nations

    Slide 9 - United Nations

    • Replaced the League of Nations
    • created by delegates from 50 nations
    • to maintain international peace and security
    • Security Council – permanent members have veto power
    • General Assembly – all members; largely ineffectual
  9. Stalin

    Slide 10 - Stalin

    • Refused free elections in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria
    • Suppressed noncommunist parties
    • Installed communist governments in all Soviet-occupied regions of eastern Europe
  10. Partition of Germany & Berlin

    Slide 11 - Partition of Germany & Berlin

    • Originally under control of U.S., Britain, France, and the Soviet Union
    • Berlin located in Soviet-controlled portion of Germany
    • Millions escaped Russian occupation and fled to zones controlled by U.S. and Britain
  11. Berlin Air Lift

    Slide 12 - Berlin Air Lift

    • Soviets pressured the western powers to relinquish their hold on Berlin
    • blockaded access to Berlin
    • British & Americans responded with an 11 month around the clock air lift to supply West Berlin
    • C-47 Skytrains unloading at Tempelhof Airport during Berlin Airlift.
  12. Partition of Germany & Berlin

    Slide 13 - Partition of Germany & Berlin

    • West Germany becomes the Federal Republic of Germany (FRD)
    • East Germany becomes the German Democratic Republic (DDR)
  13. Berlin Wall

    Slide 14 - Berlin Wall

    • Built between 1949 & 1961
    • designed to stop the millions of East Germans from defecting to capitalist controlled West Berlin
    • East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, November 20, 1961.
  14. iron curtain

    Slide 15 - iron curtain

    • symbolized the separation of east and west (communism and democracy) after WWII
    • “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent…” – W. Churchill
  15. NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)

    Slide 16 - NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)

    • 1949
    • regional military alliance against Soviet aggression
    • intended to maintain peace in Europe
    • Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, and the U.S.
  16. Warsaw Pact

    Slide 17 - Warsaw Pact

    • created in response to NATO after NATO admitted West Germany and allowed it to rearm
    • alliance of Soviet-controlled nations
  17. Truman Doctrine

    Slide 18 - Truman Doctrine

    • 1947
    • U.S. pledged to support people being subjugated by communists
    • interventionist foreign policy
  18. Korea

    Slide 19 - Korea

    • USSR & USA partitioned Korea along the 38th parallel
    • The anticommunist Republic of Korea ruled by Syngman Rhee (1875-1965) was established in 1948
    • President Rhee taking the oath of office in Seoul on July 24, 1948
  19. Korea

    Slide 20 - Korea

    • The communist People’s Democratic Republic of Korea ruled by Kim Il Sung (1912-1995) was established in the same year
  20. Korea

    Slide 21 - Korea

    • North Korea invaded S. Korea
    • US troops drove them back & advanced into Northern Korea
    • People’s Republic of China (PRC) entered the conflict and drove US forces back to the 38th parallel
    • Armistice, but no peace treaty
  21. Domino Theory

    Slide 22 - Domino Theory

    • The Southeast Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO), the Asian counterpart of NATO, was created after the Korean War
    • President Eisenhower stated that if one country became communist, the others around it would fall like dominos
  22. Vietnam

    Slide 23 - Vietnam

    • South Vietnamese communists organized the National Liberation Front (Viet Cong)
    • sought to overthrow the non-communist government
    • Eddie Adams's Pulitzer Prize-winning photo of General Nguyễn Ngọc Loan executing a Viet Cong officer.
  23. Vietnam

    Slide 24 - Vietnam

    • US involvement and inability to deter communism in South Vietnam was a loss of face for the US
    • South Vietnam was defeated in 1975
    • unified under a communist government in 1976
    • This well-known photo taken by Hubert van Es shows South Vietnamese civilians scrambling to board a CIA Air America helicopter during the U.S. evacuation of Saigon.
  24. Cuba

    Slide 25 - Cuba

    • 1959 - Fidel Castro (1926-) overthrew Fulgencio Batista (1901-1973)
    • Castro expropriated US sugar holdings
  25. Cuba

    Slide 26 - Cuba

    • The US responded by imposing an export embargo on Cuba
    • Castro declares he is a socialist
    • Castro arrives in Washington, D.C. on April 15, 1959.
  26. Bay of Pigs Invasion

    Slide 27 - Bay of Pigs Invasion

    • President Kennedy authorized the Bay of Pigs Invasion
    • a total failure
    • Castro looked for an ally – Soviet Union
  27. Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)

    Slide 28 - Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)

    • US learned that the Soviets had set up medium-range nuclear missiles in Cuba
    • Kennedy imposed an air & naval quarantine on Cuba
    • Soviets withdrew the missiles
    • U-2 reconnaissance photograph of Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba. Shown are the transports and tents for fueling and maintenance.
  28. Cold War Society

    Slide 29 - Cold War Society

    • The Red Scare: sensationalized by Senator Joseph McCarthy (1909-1957) and his hunt for communists in the government & Hollywood
    • Female discontent with postwar domesticity helped give rise to the feminist movement
  29. Space Race

    Slide 30 - Space Race

    • 1950s - the Soviets successfully test an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM).
  30. Space Race

    Slide 31 - Space Race

    • 1957 - the launched the first satellite into space, Sputnik.
  31. Space Race

    Slide 32 - Space Race

    • 1961 - Yuri Gagarin (Soviet) becomes the first man to orbit the earth
  32. Space Race

    Slide 33 - Space Race

    • President Kennedy dedicates himself to the creation of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
  33. Space Race

    Slide 34 - Space Race

    • On July 20, 1969, Apollo XI landed on the moon at the Sea of Tranquility
    • Buzz Aldrin poses on the Moon allowing Neil Armstrong to photograph both of them using the visor's reflection
  34. Arms Race

    Slide 35 - Arms Race

    • 1960s - USSR had nearly achieved parity with the USA
    • 1970s - both sides had the capacity for mutually assured destruction (MAD)
  35. Germany

    Slide 36 - Germany

    • The Berlin Wall came down on November 9, 1989, and Germany quickly reunified.
  36. Soviet Union

    Slide 37 - Soviet Union

    • Mikhail Gorbachev
    • Succeeded Brezhnev as Soviet Premier.
    • Perestroika: “restructuring “the economy became his key concern.
    • Glasnost: Was the opening of Soviet society to public criticism.
  37. Soviet Union

    Slide 38 - Soviet Union

    • Glasnost allowed the repressed ethnic and nationalist feelings to surface, and led to the independence of the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, & Lithuania).
  38. Soviet Union

    Slide 39 - Soviet Union

    • The other satellites declared their independence and Boris Yeltsin achieved the leadership of Russia.
    • Yeltsin crushed an attempted coup by the old guard and the Soviet Union was officially dismantled in December 25, 1991.
  39. Poland

    Slide 40 - Poland

    • Revolution
    • Poland, led by Lech Walesa, ended communism using the Solidarity Movement.
  40. Czechoslovakia

    Slide 41 - Czechoslovakia

    • Unable to agree upon when to shift to a market economy, split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia in 1993.
  41. The People’s Republic of China (PRC)

    Slide 42 - The People’s Republic of China (PRC)

    • Chiang Kai-shek fled China and went to Taiwan, claiming that Taiwan was the legitimate government of all China.
  42. The People’s Republic of China (PRC)

    Slide 43 - The People’s Republic of China (PRC)

    • Mao Zedong, the Chairmen of the Chinese Communist Party, established the Republic on October 1, 1949.
  43. Mao’s Reforms

    Slide 44 - Mao’s Reforms

    • Industrialized China
    • Redistributed land, nearly eliminating economic inequality
    • Cultural Revolution (1958)
    • Mass mobilization of youth into Red Guard units
    • Emblem of the PRC.
  44. The People’s Republic of China (PRC)

    Slide 45 - The People’s Republic of China (PRC)

    • China & the USSR begin to quarrel over Khrushchev’s policy of “peaceful coexistence” as too revisionary
  45. Deng Xiaoping

    Slide 46 - Deng Xiaoping

    • Ruled China during the 1980’s
    • Supported education
    • Brought free market reforms to China
    • Normalized relations with the U.S.
    • Crushed student protests for democracy (Tiananmen Square, 1989)