Princeton - Cold War Notes
Email this Mix
Tags: World History
Slide 1 - The Cold War
- 1945 - 1991
Slide 2 - Terminology
- Cold War - the political and strategic maneuvering of the USA & the USSR without direct engagement between the two superpowers
- Superpower - used to distinguish those countries with global influence when compared to great powers with limited resources
Slide 3 - Cold War
- Between Soviet Union and the U.S.
- Usually refrained from armed conflict
- Resettlement and rebuilding after WWII was expensive and complex
Slide 5 - International Monetary System
- IMF – financed temporary trade deficits
- World Bank – provided funds for reconstruction
- Soviet Union resisted by establishing a closed monetary system
Slide 6 - Marshall Plan
- designed to rebuild European economies through capitalism and cooperation
- U.S. gave $12.5 billion to reconstruct western Europe
- Soviets refused to allow eastern European nations to participate
Slide 8 - European Economic Community
- European gov’ts nationalized industries
- Lowered tariffs increased trade
- Increased wages & social welfare
Slide 9 - United Nations
- Replaced the League of Nations
- created by delegates from 50 nations
- to maintain international peace and security
- Security Council – permanent members have veto power
- General Assembly – all members; largely ineffectual
Slide 10 - Stalin
- Refused free elections in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria
- Suppressed noncommunist parties
- Installed communist governments in all Soviet-occupied regions of eastern Europe
Slide 11 - Partition of Germany & Berlin
- Originally under control of U.S., Britain, France, and the Soviet Union
- Berlin located in Soviet-controlled portion of Germany
- Millions escaped Russian occupation and fled to zones controlled by U.S. and Britain
Slide 12 - Berlin Air Lift
- Soviets pressured the western powers to relinquish their hold on Berlin
- blockaded access to Berlin
- British & Americans responded with an 11 month around the clock air lift to supply West Berlin
- C-47 Skytrains unloading at Tempelhof Airport during Berlin Airlift.
Slide 13 - Partition of Germany & Berlin
- West Germany becomes the Federal Republic of Germany (FRD)
- East Germany becomes the German Democratic Republic (DDR)
Slide 14 - Berlin Wall
- Built between 1949 & 1961
- designed to stop the millions of East Germans from defecting to capitalist controlled West Berlin
- East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, November 20, 1961.
Slide 15 - iron curtain
- symbolized the separation of east and west (communism and democracy) after WWII
- “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent…” – W. Churchill
Slide 16 - NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
- regional military alliance against Soviet aggression
- intended to maintain peace in Europe
- Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, and the U.S.
Slide 17 - Warsaw Pact
- created in response to NATO after NATO admitted West Germany and allowed it to rearm
- alliance of Soviet-controlled nations
Slide 18 - Truman Doctrine
- U.S. pledged to support people being subjugated by communists
- interventionist foreign policy
Slide 19 - Korea
- USSR & USA partitioned Korea along the 38th parallel
- The anticommunist Republic of Korea ruled by Syngman Rhee (1875-1965) was established in 1948
- President Rhee taking the oath of office in Seoul on July 24, 1948
Slide 20 - Korea
- The communist People’s Democratic Republic of Korea ruled by Kim Il Sung (1912-1995) was established in the same year
Slide 21 - Korea
- North Korea invaded S. Korea
- US troops drove them back & advanced into Northern Korea
- People’s Republic of China (PRC) entered the conflict and drove US forces back to the 38th parallel
- Armistice, but no peace treaty
Slide 22 - Domino Theory
- The Southeast Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO), the Asian counterpart of NATO, was created after the Korean War
- President Eisenhower stated that if one country became communist, the others around it would fall like dominos
Slide 23 - Vietnam
- South Vietnamese communists organized the National Liberation Front (Viet Cong)
- sought to overthrow the non-communist government
- Eddie Adams's Pulitzer Prize-winning photo of General Nguyễn Ngọc Loan executing a Viet Cong officer.
Slide 24 - Vietnam
- US involvement and inability to deter communism in South Vietnam was a loss of face for the US
- South Vietnam was defeated in 1975
- unified under a communist government in 1976
- This well-known photo taken by Hubert van Es shows South Vietnamese civilians scrambling to board a CIA Air America helicopter during the U.S. evacuation of Saigon.
Slide 25 - Cuba
- 1959 - Fidel Castro (1926-) overthrew Fulgencio Batista (1901-1973)
- Castro expropriated US sugar holdings
Slide 26 - Cuba
- The US responded by imposing an export embargo on Cuba
- Castro declares he is a socialist
- Castro arrives in Washington, D.C. on April 15, 1959.
Slide 27 - Bay of Pigs Invasion
- President Kennedy authorized the Bay of Pigs Invasion
- a total failure
- Castro looked for an ally – Soviet Union
Slide 28 - Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
- US learned that the Soviets had set up medium-range nuclear missiles in Cuba
- Kennedy imposed an air & naval quarantine on Cuba
- Soviets withdrew the missiles
- U-2 reconnaissance photograph of Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba. Shown are the transports and tents for fueling and maintenance.
Slide 29 - Cold War Society
- The Red Scare: sensationalized by Senator Joseph McCarthy (1909-1957) and his hunt for communists in the government & Hollywood
- Female discontent with postwar domesticity helped give rise to the feminist movement
Slide 30 - Space Race
- 1950s - the Soviets successfully test an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM).
Slide 31 - Space Race
- 1957 - the launched the first satellite into space, Sputnik.
Slide 32 - Space Race
- 1961 - Yuri Gagarin (Soviet) becomes the first man to orbit the earth
Slide 33 - Space Race
- President Kennedy dedicates himself to the creation of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
Slide 34 - Space Race
- On July 20, 1969, Apollo XI landed on the moon at the Sea of Tranquility
- Buzz Aldrin poses on the Moon allowing Neil Armstrong to photograph both of them using the visor's reflection
Slide 35 - Arms Race
- 1960s - USSR had nearly achieved parity with the USA
- 1970s - both sides had the capacity for mutually assured destruction (MAD)
Slide 36 - Germany
- The Berlin Wall came down on November 9, 1989, and Germany quickly reunified.
Slide 37 - Soviet Union
- Mikhail Gorbachev
- Succeeded Brezhnev as Soviet Premier.
- Perestroika: “restructuring “the economy became his key concern.
- Glasnost: Was the opening of Soviet society to public criticism.
Slide 38 - Soviet Union
- Glasnost allowed the repressed ethnic and nationalist feelings to surface, and led to the independence of the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, & Lithuania).
Slide 39 - Soviet Union
- The other satellites declared their independence and Boris Yeltsin achieved the leadership of Russia.
- Yeltsin crushed an attempted coup by the old guard and the Soviet Union was officially dismantled in December 25, 1991.
Slide 40 - Poland
- Poland, led by Lech Walesa, ended communism using the Solidarity Movement.
Slide 41 - Czechoslovakia
- Unable to agree upon when to shift to a market economy, split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia in 1993.
Slide 42 - The People’s Republic of China (PRC)
- Chiang Kai-shek fled China and went to Taiwan, claiming that Taiwan was the legitimate government of all China.
Slide 43 - The People’s Republic of China (PRC)
- Mao Zedong, the Chairmen of the Chinese Communist Party, established the Republic on October 1, 1949.
Slide 44 - Mao’s Reforms
- Industrialized China
- Redistributed land, nearly eliminating economic inequality
- Cultural Revolution (1958)
- Mass mobilization of youth into Red Guard units
- Emblem of the PRC.
Slide 45 - The People’s Republic of China (PRC)
- China & the USSR begin to quarrel over Khrushchev’s policy of “peaceful coexistence” as too revisionary
Slide 46 - Deng Xiaoping
- Ruled China during the 1980’s
- Supported education
- Brought free market reforms to China
- Normalized relations with the U.S.
- Crushed student protests for democracy (Tiananmen Square, 1989)