Compliance techniques NARRATED(1)
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Slide 1 - Social influence: Compliance techniques
- Sociocultural level of analysis
Slide 2 - Social influence – A CHANGE IN BEHAVIOR DUE TO THE PRESENCE OF OTHERS.
- Conformity – some change in behavior due to a real or imagined influence of other people
- Compliance – some change in behavior due to a direct request.
- Obedience – some change in behavior due to a command of another person.
- When you go from conformity, to compliance to obedience, you are looking at an increase in social pressure.
Slide 3 - Principles leading to compliance
- Reciprocity – we are likely to return favours or feel indebted if given a gift.
- Scarcity –objects that scarce are more wanted. For example – “last minute sales.”
- Authority – we follow people known as authorities Commitment – once we have committed to a small thing we are likely to continue.
- Liking – we are more willing to say yes to someone we like
- Consensus- more willing to say yes if we know that people around us are also saying yes. We tend to follow the group.
Slide 4 - The Rule of reciprocation
- Cialdini (1993): Argues that people are socialized into returning favours so powerful rule underpinning compliance
- Anthropologists Tiger & Fox (1971) argue that reciprocation (mutual indebtedness) is perhaps the result of evolution.
- Lynn & McCall (1988) found that restaurants who offered a mint or sweet with the bill received larger tips.
Slide 5 - The Rule of reciprocation
- Regan (1971)
- Carried out a lab experiment to investigate if people who had received a free coke would return the favour when asked to buy raffle tickets from the same person compared to a control who had received no favour.
- Questionnaires were given to rate the “liking” of the confederate to investigate the effect of liking on doing a favour for a person.
- Participants who had received a favour in the experimental condition bought a significantly higher number of raffle tickets compared to participants in the control condition.
- “Liking” did not influence the number of raffle tickets bought in the experimental condition. Those who did not like the confederate bought as many tickets as those who said they liked the confederate; in the control condition they bought more tickets if they liked the confederate.
- Conclusion: the rule of reciprocity is very powerful – a strong sense of social obligation.
Slide 6 - Cultural norms and reciprocity
- Ting-Toomey (1986) anthropologist
- Carried out field research; compared the forms of reciprocity in 3 individualist cultures (Australia, USA, France) with reciprocity in two collectivist (Japan and China).
- The rule of reciprocity appears to be universal – which supports an evolutionary explanation) but
- Reciprocity displayed differently:
- Individualist countries: voluntary reciprocity – free will in returning favour
- Collectivist countries: obligatory reciprocity the norm - moral failure if reciprocity is not honoured
Slide 7 - Compliance and compliance techniques
- Cialdini et al. (2004): Compliance is the act of responding favourably to an implicit or explicit request by others
- Compliance techniques are the ways individuals use to make other individuals comply with their request or desires
- The success of compliance techniques is based on principles like reciprocity, commitment and self- consistency/self-perception.
Slide 8 - Examples of compliance techniques
- Door-in-the-face technique: Make an extreme request and then a smaller request
- Foot-in-the-door technique: Make small request first and then a larger request to increase commitment.
Slide 9 - Foot-in-the-door technique
- Freedman & Fraser (1966)
- First asked people to sign a petition for either safe-driving or ’making California beautiful’.
- Two weeks they were asked to place a large sign in front of their homes to support safe driving.
- Result: Those who agreed to the petition were more likely to comply to putting up the sign.
- Beaman et al. (1983) meta-analysis of foot-in-the-door research found less effect.
- Dickerson et al. (1992) field experiment.
- University students asked to sign poster to take
- shorter showers to conserve water in dormitory
- showers. Then ’shower time’ was measured for
- each student in the dorm. The ’signers’ showered
- 3.5 minutes shorter on average than students in the
- dorm who had not signed the poster first.
- Evaluation FITD
- Most powerful effect when self-image is related to the request.
- Much research in the area used pro-social requests – and such requests are more likely to be accepted.
- If the second request was in line with the first, people are more likely to comply. This may be based on one’s need for self-consistency.
- The technique has been applied successfully in charity and volunteer work as well as in public health campaigns.
Slide 10 - Door-in-the-face technique
- DITF is when first a large request is asked and then, when it is rejected, a smaller request is made.
- People tend to comply to the second request because:
- They feel that have been accommodated so they have to say yes (the rule of reciprocity)
- They don’t like saying no and may fear being socially rejected → saying yes can sometimes be seen as a consequence of ’need to belong.’
- Cialdini et al. (1975)
- Carried out a field experiment. The control group was asked to accompany juvenile delinquents on a one-day trip to the Zoo. 17% said yes; 83% said no.
- In the DITF group, the students were asked to volunteer to counsel juvenile delinquents for two hours a week for two years. All said no. When they same group was then asked the same question as the control group, 50% said yes.
Slide 11 - Door-in-the-face does not always work!
Slide 12 - Revising the Learning outcome
- Essay question: Discuss the use of compliance techniques
- Discuss: Offer a considered and balanced review that includes a range of factors, arguments or hypothesis. Opinions or conclusions should be presented clearly and supported by appropriate evidence
- For example:
- How and why compliance techniques are used in real life
- Under what conditions compliance techniques seem effective
- Psychological explanations of compliance? (For example, reciprocity and commitment)
- Include research (theories and studies) illustrating compliance techniques
- Check assessment criteria for paper 1 section B