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Slide 1 - Review of Basic Chemistry:
Slide 4 - The Digestive System
Slide 5 - All living and nonliving matter is composed of 92 naturally-occurring basic elements (Periodic Table)
- Six elements (C, H, N, O, P, S) make up 98% of living things.
Slide 6 - Elements and Compounds
- When two or more different elements bond together, they form a compound (e.g., H2O).
- A molecule is the smallest part of a compound that has the properties of the compound.
- One glass of water has TRILLIONS of water molecules (7.5 x 1024)
- One Water Molecule:
Slide 7 - What is the MOST IMPORTANT nutrient for all living things?
- WATER’S IMPORTANCE:
- -All living things are made up of at least 70% water.
- -Water is liquid between 0 C and 100 C which is critical for life.
Slide 9 - Four Properties of Water
- 1. The temperature of liquid water rises and falls more slowly than that of most other liquids. This protects living things from rapid temperature changes and helps them maintain normal temperatures.
- Arctic Ocean Coastline: Winter (left), Summer (right).
Slide 10 - 2. When animals sweat, evaporation of the sweat takes away body heat, thus cooling the animal.
- 3. Water is universal solvent, because it dissolves a great number of solutes. Water helps transport substances in the body (blood is mostly water), as well as dilute toxins.
- Solvents dissolve other substances .
Slide 12 - 4. Hydrogen bonds create surface tension. This allows some insects to walk on water. Hydrogen bonds also allow ice to float on liquid water.
Slide 13 - What is the pH Scale?
- pH is a measure of how acidic or basic a substance is.
- It is based on a 14-point scale.
- water has a neutral pH of 7
- An acid is a substance with pH less than 7;
- A base is a substance with pH greater than 7.
- * Buffers keep pH steady and within normal limits in living organisms..
Slide 14 - “Normal” pH?
- Most living things prefer a neutral pH (around 7)
- There are exceptions
- Strong acids (and bases) can cause damage to the body.
Slide 15 - Anatomy of the Mouth
Slide 16 - How Cavities Form:
- Bacteria in mouth feed on sugars
- Bacteria release ACIDS as waste
- Acid dissolves away enamel
Slide 17 - Where Else in the Body is Acid NORMALLY Found?
- Stomach acid helps in the physical breakdown of food (into smaller pieces)
- More importantly, stomach acid kills most harmful bacteria that might be found in food (and could make you sick)
Slide 18 - Disorders of the Digestive System
- Gastroesophageal reflux disease
- Stomach acid esophagus heart burn
- GOOD JOB!