NCCER Elc L2 M6

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NCCER Elc L2 M6

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Slide Content
  1. Objectives

    Slide 2 - Objectives

    • When trainees have completed this lesson, they should be able to do the following:
    • 1. Explain the importance of communication during a cable-pulling operation.
    • 2. Plan and set up for a cable pull.
    • 3. Set up reel stands and spindles for a wire-pulling installation.
    • 4. Explain how mandrels, swabs, and brushes are used to prepare conduit for conductors.
    • 5. Properly install a pull line for a cable-pulling operation.
    • 6. Explain how and when to support conductors in vertical conduit runs.
    • 7. Describe the installation of cables in cable trays.
    • 8. Calculate the probable stress or tension in cable pulls.
    • Conductor Installations 26206-14
  2. Performance Tasks

    Slide 3 - Performance Tasks

    • 1. Prepare multiple conductors for pulling in a raceway system.
    • 2. Prepare multiple conductors for pulling using a wire-pulling basket.
    • Conductor Installations 26206-14
  3. 1.0.0

    Slide 4 - 1.0.0

    • Conductor Installations 26206-14
    • Introduction
    • • There are three types of fish tape: steel, nylon, and fiberglass. Combination blower/fish tape systems can be used to simplify the installation in longer runs of conduit.
    • • Basket grips are used to hold the conductor to the fish tape and eliminate the need for taping wires.
  4. 1.0.0

    Slide 5 - 1.0.0

    • Conductor Installations 26206-14
    • Wire Dispensers
    • • Wire dispensers are used to keep conductors from tangling during a pull. All of the wires for the run are pulled straight off the caddy or a wall-mounted reel.
    • • Wheeled caddies make it easy to move large spools between pulling locations.
  5. 2.0.0 – 2.2.0

    Slide 6 - 2.0.0 – 2.2.0

    • Conductor Installations 26206-14
    • Planning the Installation
    • • Proper planning is critical to ensuring both safety and the success of a cable pull.
    • • Before pulling, the run must be measured and the cable ordered so the reel length matches the pull. Cable should be pulled from the shipping reels whenever possible to minimize damage and waste.
  6. 2.0.0 – 2.2.0

    Slide 7 - 2.0.0 – 2.2.0

    • Conductor Installations 26206-14
    • Basic Steps of a Wire-Pulling Operation
  7. 3.0.0 – 3.5.0

    Slide 8 - 3.0.0 – 3.5.0

    • Conductor Installations 26206-14
    • Setting Up for Wire Pulling
    • • An equipment checklist will save time when setting up for a cable pull.
    • • Different items may be needed based on the type of equipment used and the installation.
  8. 3.0.0 – 3.5.0

    Slide 9 - 3.0.0 – 3.5.0

    • Conductor Installations 26206-14
    • Two Methods of Transporting Cable Reels
    • • Cable reels are very heavy and should not be lifted by hand.
    • • Large reels can be rolled to the pulling location or moved using a forklift. Smaller reels can be moved using a wheeled caddy or a cable reel transporter.
  9. 3.0.0 – 3.5.0

    Slide 10 - 3.0.0 – 3.5.0

    • Conductor Installations 26206-14
    • Proper and Improper Ways of Transporting Cable Reels
  10. 3.0.0 – 3.5.0

    Slide 11 - 3.0.0 – 3.5.0

    • Conductor Installations 26206-14
    • Typical Reel Stands
    • • Reel jacks are used to hold reels of cable during installation.
    • • Two stands and a spindle are required for each reel. The stand height can be adjusted to accommodate various reel diameters.
  11. 3.0.0 – 3.5.0

    Slide 12 - 3.0.0 – 3.5.0

    • Conductor Installations 26206-14
    • Faults that may be Detected with a Conduit Mandrel
    • • The raceway must be inspected prior to pulling to ensure that it is not blocked or damaged.
    • • A test pull is used to detect any obstructions prior to the pull.
  12. 3.0.0 – 3.5.0

    Slide 13 - 3.0.0 – 3.5.0

    • Conductor Installations 26206-14
    • Devices Used to Inspect, Clean, and Lubricate Raceway Systems
    • • A mandrel is used to make a go/no-go check before pulling conductors.
    • • A conduit swab is used to remove debris and apply a film of pulling compound for easier pulling.
    • • A conduit brush can be used to remove sand and other light obstructions.
  13. 3.0.0 – 3.5.0

    Slide 14 - 3.0.0 – 3.5.0

    • Conductor Installations 26206-14
    • Obtaining the Greatest Possible Conductor Sweep in a Pull Box
    • • When measuring conductor runs, be sure to allow sufficient room through pull boxes.
    • • Allow the largest possible conductor sweep to eliminate sharp bends and potential damage to the conductors.
  14. 3.0.0 – 3.5.0

    Slide 15 - 3.0.0 – 3.5.0

    • Conductor Installations 26206-14
    • Power Fishing System
    • • A blower/vacuum fish tape system can be used to either blow or vacuum pull a foam piston through the conduit.
    • • The piston is attached to a fish tape or measuring line.
  15. 3.0.0 – 3.5.0

    Slide 16 - 3.0.0 – 3.5.0

    • Conductor Installations 26206-14
    • Blower/Vacuum Fish Tape System Used to Blow a Pull Line in Conduit
    • Most blower/vacuum systems provide enough pressure to clean dirt or water from the conduit system during the fishing operation.
  16. 3.0.0 – 3.5.0

    Slide 17 - 3.0.0 – 3.5.0

    • Conductor Installations 26206-14
    • Types of Pistons in Common Use
    • • Blower/vacuum systems are provided with piston kits to accommodate various conduit sizes.
    • • Guide vanes are supplied on pistons for larger conduit.
  17. 3.0.0 – 3.5.0

    Slide 18 - 3.0.0 – 3.5.0

    • Conductor Installations 26206-14
    • Various Types of Pulling Grips Used During Conductor Installation
    • • The conductors must be securely attached to the pull line for safety. Basket grips are typically used on short pulls, while longer pulls use a cable grip connection.
    • • All equipment used in a pull must have a working load rating in excess of the maximum force applied during the pull.
    • Performance Task
    • This session will conclude with trainees preparing multiple conductors for pulling using a wire-pulling basket.
    • Next Session…
    • Cable-Pulling Equipment
  18. 4.0.0 – 4.2.1

    Slide 19 - 4.0.0 – 4.2.1

    • Conductor Installations 26206-14
    • Cable-Pulling Equipment
    • • The number of wraps on the capstan determines the force of the cable pull.
    • • To facilitate pulling, wire lubricant is swabbed through the conduit and applied on the cable. Use lubricant compatible with the wire being pulled.
  19. 4.0.0 – 4.2.1

    Slide 20 - 4.0.0 – 4.2.1

    • Conductor Installations 26206-14
    • Example Pulling Forces for Various Wraps
    • • The pulling force and number of wraps vary by equipment model and manufacturer.
    • • Due to the strain on the cable, discard the wrapped portion of the cable after making a pull.
  20. 4.0.0 – 4.2.1

    Slide 21 - 4.0.0 – 4.2.1

    • Conductor Installations 26206-14
    • Cable Pullers
    • • Hand-crank wire pullers are used on small jobs with only a few cable runs.
    • • Power cable pullers are available in a wide variety of capacities. Cable pulling equipment must be properly anchored for safety.
  21. 4.0.0 – 4.2.1

    Slide 22 - 4.0.0 – 4.2.1

    • Conductor Installations 26206-14
    • Puller Setup for a Down Pull
    • • To set up for a down pull, adjust the elbow and boom of the puller to the correct angle and lock the elbow to the upper conduit.
    • • This unit has a universal conduit latch for use with multiple conduit sizes.
  22. 4.0.0 – 4.2.1

    Slide 23 - 4.0.0 – 4.2.1

    • Conductor Installations 26206-14
    • Puller Setup for an Up Pull
    • An up pull is set up in the same way as a down pull except the unit is attached to the bottom conduit.
  23. 5.0.0 – 5.1.0

    Slide 24 - 5.0.0 – 5.1.0

    • Conductor Installations 26206-14
    • High-Force Cable Pullers
    • • High-force cable pulling requires careful planning to ensure a safe and smooth operation.
    • • Communications equipment is required between both ends of the pull.
  24. 5.0.0 – 5.1.0

    Slide 25 - 5.0.0 – 5.1.0

    • Conductor Installations 26206-14
    • Unreel the Cable Along its Natural Curvature
  25. 5.0.0 – 5.1.0

    Slide 26 - 5.0.0 – 5.1.0

    • Conductor Installations 26206-14
    • Cable Feed-In Setups
    • • Auxiliary equipment can be used to facilitate installation.
    • • Typical equipment includes reels, guides, and sheaves.
  26. 5.0.0 – 5.1.0

    Slide 27 - 5.0.0 – 5.1.0

    • Conductor Installations 26206-14
    • Cable Sheaves
    • • Single sheaves are available in various sizes to guide cable through the conduit.
    • • Sheave assemblies are also available for pulling around bends. The sheave radius must be matched to the bend to ensure a smooth pull.
  27. 5.0.0 – 5.1.0

    Slide 28 - 5.0.0 – 5.1.0

    • Conductor Installations 26206-14
    • Never Allow a Polygon Curvature to Occur in a Cable-Pulling Operation
    • • Sheaves and pulleys must be positioned carefully to ensure a smooth radius with no sharp turns.
    • • Sharp turns increase the resistance when pulling and may result in conductor damage.
    • Next Session…
    • Supporting Conductors
  28. 6.0.0

    Slide 29 - 6.0.0

    • Conductor Installations 26206-14
    • • NEC Section 300.19 contains requirements for vertical raceway supports.
    • • One conductor support must be installed at the top of the vertical raceway and intermediate supports must be provided at intervals no greater than the lengths shown here.
    • Supporting Conductors
  29. 6.0.0

    Slide 30 - 6.0.0

    • Conductor Installations 26206-14
    • • Conductors installed in vertical raceways can be supported with wedges. Conductor clamps are also required where wedges cannot offer sufficient support.
    • • Conductors may also be supported by installing covered boxes at the required intervals.
    • Conductors Supported with Wedges
  30. 7.0.0

    Slide 31 - 7.0.0

    • Conductor Installations 26206-14
    • • Cable tray installations require the use of sheaves and rollers to prevent excess strain and insulation damage.
    • • Sheaves must be supported in the opposite direction of the pull to compensate for the force on the cable.
    • • Whenever possible, install cables in a steady, continuous pull.
    • Pulling Cable in Cable Trays
  31. 8.0.0 – 8.4.0

    Slide 32 - 8.0.0 – 8.4.0

    • Conductor Installations 26206-14
    • • Pulling subjects cable to extreme stress and can result in damage if precautions are not followed. Be aware of the cable’s maximum pulling tension as well as sidewall loading and bending radii.
    • • The allowable tensions on various types of conductors are shown here.
    • Physical Limitations of Cable
  32. 8.0.0 – 8.4.0

    Slide 33 - 8.0.0 – 8.4.0

    • Conductor Installations 26206-14
    • • To calculate the tension in horizontal pulls, multiply the length of the raceway times the weight of the cable times the coefficient of friction (T = L x w x f).
    • • For curved sections, multiply the tension into the bend by the logarithmic value of the friction at a specific angle (TOUT = TINefa). The efa values for various bends are shown here.
    • Angle of Bend Vs. Coefficients of Friction
    • Performance Task
    • This session will conclude with trainees preparing multiple conductors for pulling in a raceway system.
  33. 8.0.0 – 8.4.0

    Slide 34 - 8.0.0 – 8.4.0

    • Conductor Installations 26206-14
    • • The sidewall load is the radial force exerted on a cable being pulled around a conduit bend or sheave.
    • • Excess sidewall loading can crush a cable and can be reduced by increasing the radius of the bend.
    • Sidewall Loading
  34. 8.0.0 – 8.4.0

    Slide 35 - 8.0.0 – 8.4.0

    • Conductor Installations 26206-14
    • • The sidewall load on any raceway run should not exceed the values shown here.
    • • These values may vary by manufacturer. Always refer to the specifications for the cable in use.
    • Maximum Sidewall Pressures for Various Types of Cable
  35. 8.0.0 – 8.4.0

    Slide 36 - 8.0.0 – 8.4.0

    • Conductor Installations 26206-14
    • Assuming that the cable installed here weighs 8 pounds/foot, the tension between points A and B can be calculated as follows:
    • T1 = L1 x w x f
    • T1 = 300 x 8 x 0.5 = 1,200 pounds
    • Sample Conduit Run
  36. 9.0.0

    Slide 37 - 9.0.0

    • Conductor Installations 26206-14
    • • Cable length meters can be used to determine the precise length of cables on reels prior to pulling.
    • • These instruments are calibrated for various wire sizes, and the cable size is typically selected using a switch on the instrument.
    • Cable-Pulling Instruments
  37. 9.0.0

    Slide 38 - 9.0.0

    • Conductor Installations 26206-14
    • • Circuit testers can be used to trace conductors on unenergized circuits.
    • • These instruments are helpful when marking unidentified conductors.
    • Circuit Tester
    • Next Session…
    • Wrap Up
  38. Wrap Up

    Slide 39 - Wrap Up

    • 3-2-1
    • 3 – Write 3 important things learned during class
    • 2 – Write 2 questions you have about the material
    • 1 – Write 1 thought you had about the material
    • Conductor Installations 26206-14
  39. Next Session…

    Slide 40 - Next Session…

    • MODULE EXAM
    • Review the complete module to prepare for the module exam. Complete the Module Review as a study aid.
    • Conductor Installations 26206-14