EuropeanExplorationAndColonization

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EuropeanExplorationAndColonization

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  1. The Age of Early

    Slide 1 - The Age of Early

    • European Explorations
    • & Conquests
  2. FOR “God, Glory, and Gold”

    Slide 2 - FOR “God, Glory, and Gold”

    • Europeans Seek New Trade Routes
    • The Spread of Christianity
    • Technology Makes Exploration Possible
  3. After the Crusades

    Slide 3 - After the Crusades

    • Europeans demanded such spices as nutmeg, ginger, cinnamon, and pepper, all of which added flavor to the bland foods of Europe.
    • Increase in cost through Italian traders buying goods from Muslims (Ottoman Turks) motivated monarchies to find new trade routes.
  4. Earlier Explorations

    Slide 4 - Earlier Explorations

    • Islam & the Spice Trade
    • A New Player  Europe
    • Marco Polo, 1271
    • Expansion becomes a state enterprise  monarchs had the authority & the resources.
    • Better seaworthy ships.
    • Chinese Admiral Zheng He & the Ming “Treasure Fleet”
  5. Admiral Zheng He

    Slide 5 - Admiral Zheng He

    • 1371-1435
    • Each ship was 400’ long and 160’ wide!
  6. Zheng He’s Voyages

    Slide 6 - Zheng He’s Voyages

    • In 1498, Da Gama reached Calcutta, China’s favorite port!
  7. A Map of the Known World, pre- 1492

    Slide 7 - A Map of the Known World, pre- 1492

  8. Motives for European Exploration

    Slide 8 - Motives for European Exploration

    • Crusades  by-pass intermediaries to get to Asia.
    • Renaissance  curiosity about other lands and peoples.
    • Reformation  refugees & missionaries.
    • Monarchs seeking new sources of revenue.
    • Technological advances.
    • Fame and fortune.
  9. New Maritime Technologies

    Slide 9 - New Maritime Technologies

    • Hartman Astrolabe(1532)
    • Better Maps [Portulan]
    • Sextant
    • Mariner’s Compass
  10. New Weapons Technology

    Slide 10 - New Weapons Technology

  11. Prince Henry, the Navigator

    Slide 11 - Prince Henry, the Navigator

    • School for Navigation, 1419
  12. Museum of Navigationin Lisbon

    Slide 12 - Museum of Navigationin Lisbon

  13. Portuguese Maritime Empire

    Slide 13 - Portuguese Maritime Empire

    • Exploring the west coast of Africa.
    • Bartolomeo Dias, 1487.
    • Vasco da Gama, 1498.
    • Calicut.
    • Admiral Alfonso de Albuquerque (Goa, 1510; Malacca, 1511).
  14. Christopher Columbus [1451-1506]

    Slide 14 - Christopher Columbus [1451-1506]

  15. Columbus’ Four Voyages

    Slide 15 - Columbus’ Four Voyages

  16. Other Voyages of Exploration

    Slide 16 - Other Voyages of Exploration

  17. Ferdinand Magellan & the First Circumnavigation of the World:Early 16c

    Slide 17 - Ferdinand Magellan & the First Circumnavigation of the World:Early 16c

  18. Atlantic Explorations

    Slide 18 - Atlantic Explorations

    • Looking for “El Dorado”
  19. Fernando Cortez

    Slide 19 - Fernando Cortez

    • The First Spanish Conquests:The Aztecs
    • Montezuma II
    • vs.
  20. The Death of Montezuma II

    Slide 20 - The Death of Montezuma II

  21. Mexico Surrenders to Cortez

    Slide 21 - Mexico Surrenders to Cortez

  22. Francisco Pizarro

    Slide 22 - Francisco Pizarro

    • The First Spanish Conquests: The Incas
    • Atahualpa
    • vs.
  23. Slaves Working in a Brazilian Sugar Mill

    Slide 23 - Slaves Working in a Brazilian Sugar Mill

  24. Why would the

    Slide 24 - Why would the

    • 'Columbian Exchange'
    • be considered the
    • tsunami of
    • unintentional
    • "bio-terrorism"??
  25. The “Columbian Exchange”

    Slide 25 - The “Columbian Exchange”

    • Squash
    • Avocado
    • Peppers
    • Sweet Potatoes
    • Turkey
    • Pumpkin
    • Tobacco
    • Quinine
    • Cocoa
    • Pineapple
    • Cassava
    • POTATO
    • Peanut
    • TOMATO
    • Vanilla
    • MAIZE
    • Syphilis
    • Olive
    • COFFEE BEAN
    • Banana
    • Rice
    • Onion
    • Turnip
    • Honeybee
    • Barley
    • Grape
    • Peach
    • SUGAR CANE
    • Oats
    • Citrus Fruits
    • Pear
    • Wheat
    • HORSE
    • Cattle
    • Sheep
    • Pigs
    • Smallpox
    • Flu
    • Typhus
    • Measles
    • Malaria
    • Diptheria
    • Whooping Cough
    • Trinkets
    • Liquor
    • GUNS
  26. Cycle of Conquest & Colonization

    Slide 26 - Cycle of Conquest & Colonization

    • Explorers
    • Conquistadores
    • Missionaries
    • PermanentSettlers
    • OfficialEuropeanColony!
  27. Treasuresfrom the Americas!

    Slide 27 - Treasuresfrom the Americas!

  28. Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade

    Slide 28 - Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade

  29. The Slave Trade

    Slide 29 - The Slave Trade

    • Existed in Africa before the coming of the Europeans.
    • Portuguese replaced European slaves with Africans.
    • Sugar cane & sugar plantations.
    • First boatload of African slaves brought by the Spanish in 1518.
    • 275,000 enslaved Africans exportedto other countries.
    • Between 16c & 19c, about 10 million Africans shipped to the Americas.
  30. Slave Ship

    Slide 30 - Slave Ship

    • “Middle Passage”
  31. “Coffin” Position Below Deck

    Slide 31 - “Coffin” Position Below Deck

  32. African CaptivesThrown Overboard

    Slide 32 - African CaptivesThrown Overboard

    • Sharks followed the slave ships!
  33. European Empires in the Americas

    Slide 33 - European Empires in the Americas

  34. The Colonial Class System

    Slide 34 - The Colonial Class System

    • Peninsulares
    • Creoles
    • Mestizos
    • Mulattos
    • Native Indians
    • Black Slaves
  35. Administration of the Spanish Empire in the New World

    Slide 35 - Administration of the Spanish Empire in the New World

    • Encomienda or forced labor.
    • Council of the Indies.
    • Papal State
  36. The Influence of the Colonial Catholic Church

    Slide 36 - The Influence of the Colonial Catholic Church

    • Guadalajara Cathedral
    • Our Lady of Guadalupe
    • Spanish Mission
  37. The Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494 & The Pope’s Line of Demarcation

    Slide 37 - The Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494 & The Pope’s Line of Demarcation

  38. Father Bartolome de Las Casas

    Slide 38 - Father Bartolome de Las Casas

    • New Laws  1542
  39. New Colonial Rivals

    Slide 39 - New Colonial Rivals

    • Portugal lacked the numbers and wealth to dominate trade in the Indian Ocean.
    • Spain in Asia  consolidated its holdings in the Philippines.
    • First English expedition to the Indies in 1591.
    • Surat in NW India in 1608.
    • Dutch arrive in India in 1595.
  40. New Colonial Rivals

    Slide 40 - New Colonial Rivals

  41. Impact of European Expansion

    Slide 41 - Impact of European Expansion

    • Native populations ravaged by disease.
    • Influx of gold, and especially silver, into Europe created an inflationary economic climate.[“Price Revolution”]
    • New products introduced across the continents [“Columbian Exchange”].
    • Deepened colonial rivalries.
  42. 5.  New Patterns of World Trade

    Slide 42 - 5. New Patterns of World Trade