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Slide 1 - The Age of Early
- European Explorations
- & Conquests
Slide 2 - FOR “God, Glory, and Gold”
- Europeans Seek New Trade Routes
- The Spread of Christianity
- Technology Makes Exploration Possible
Slide 3 - After the Crusades
- Europeans demanded such spices as nutmeg, ginger, cinnamon, and pepper, all of which added flavor to the bland foods of Europe.
- Increase in cost through Italian traders buying goods from Muslims (Ottoman Turks) motivated monarchies to find new trade routes.
Slide 4 - Earlier Explorations
- Islam & the Spice Trade
- A New Player Europe
- Marco Polo, 1271
- Expansion becomes a state enterprise monarchs had the authority & the resources.
- Better seaworthy ships.
- Chinese Admiral Zheng He & the Ming “Treasure Fleet”
Slide 5 - Admiral Zheng He
- Each ship was 400’ long and 160’ wide!
Slide 6 - Zheng He’s Voyages
- In 1498, Da Gama reached Calcutta, China’s favorite port!
Slide 7 - A Map of the Known World, pre- 1492
Slide 8 - Motives for European Exploration
- Crusades by-pass intermediaries to get to Asia.
- Renaissance curiosity about other lands and peoples.
- Reformation refugees & missionaries.
- Monarchs seeking new sources of revenue.
- Technological advances.
- Fame and fortune.
Slide 9 - New Maritime Technologies
- Hartman Astrolabe(1532)
- Better Maps [Portulan]
- Mariner’s Compass
Slide 10 - New Weapons Technology
Slide 11 - Prince Henry, the Navigator
- School for Navigation, 1419
Slide 12 - Museum of Navigationin Lisbon
Slide 13 - Portuguese Maritime Empire
- Exploring the west coast of Africa.
- Bartolomeo Dias, 1487.
- Vasco da Gama, 1498.
- Admiral Alfonso de Albuquerque (Goa, 1510; Malacca, 1511).
Slide 14 - Christopher Columbus [1451-1506]
Slide 15 - Columbus’ Four Voyages
Slide 16 - Other Voyages of Exploration
Slide 17 - Ferdinand Magellan & the First Circumnavigation of the World:Early 16c
Slide 18 - Atlantic Explorations
- Looking for “El Dorado”
Slide 19 - Fernando Cortez
- The First Spanish Conquests:The Aztecs
- Montezuma II
Slide 20 - The Death of Montezuma II
Slide 21 - Mexico Surrenders to Cortez
Slide 22 - Francisco Pizarro
- The First Spanish Conquests: The Incas
Slide 23 - Slaves Working in a Brazilian Sugar Mill
Slide 24 - Why would the
- 'Columbian Exchange'
- be considered the
- tsunami of
Slide 25 - The “Columbian Exchange”
- Sweet Potatoes
- COFFEE BEAN
- SUGAR CANE
- Citrus Fruits
- Whooping Cough
Slide 26 - Cycle of Conquest & Colonization
Slide 27 - Treasuresfrom the Americas!
Slide 28 - Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
Slide 29 - The Slave Trade
- Existed in Africa before the coming of the Europeans.
- Portuguese replaced European slaves with Africans.
- Sugar cane & sugar plantations.
- First boatload of African slaves brought by the Spanish in 1518.
- 275,000 enslaved Africans exportedto other countries.
- Between 16c & 19c, about 10 million Africans shipped to the Americas.
Slide 30 - Slave Ship
- “Middle Passage”
Slide 31 - “Coffin” Position Below Deck
Slide 32 - African CaptivesThrown Overboard
- Sharks followed the slave ships!
Slide 33 - European Empires in the Americas
Slide 34 - The Colonial Class System
- Native Indians
- Black Slaves
Slide 35 - Administration of the Spanish Empire in the New World
- Encomienda or forced labor.
- Council of the Indies.
- Papal State
Slide 36 - The Influence of the Colonial Catholic Church
- Guadalajara Cathedral
- Our Lady of Guadalupe
- Spanish Mission
Slide 37 - The Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494 & The Pope’s Line of Demarcation
Slide 38 - Father Bartolome de Las Casas
- New Laws 1542
Slide 39 - New Colonial Rivals
- Portugal lacked the numbers and wealth to dominate trade in the Indian Ocean.
- Spain in Asia consolidated its holdings in the Philippines.
- First English expedition to the Indies in 1591.
- Surat in NW India in 1608.
- Dutch arrive in India in 1595.
Slide 40 - New Colonial Rivals
Slide 41 - Impact of European Expansion
- Native populations ravaged by disease.
- Influx of gold, and especially silver, into Europe created an inflationary economic climate.[“Price Revolution”]
- New products introduced across the continents [“Columbian Exchange”].
- Deepened colonial rivalries.
Slide 42 - 5. New Patterns of World Trade