Nucleic Acids and Carbohydrates

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Nucleic Acids and Carbohydrates

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  1. Nucleic Acids and Carbohydrates

    Slide 1 - Nucleic Acids and Carbohydrates

  2. Review

    Slide 2 - Review

    • Proteins are polymers made of long chains of amino acids
    • Proteins are extremely diverse because there are 20 different amino acids that can arrange themselves in endless combinations
    • Four important proteins include muscle, antibodies, markers, and enzymes
  3. Review, continued

    Slide 3 - Review, continued

    • Enzymes are special proteins that speed up chemical reactions
    • Enzymes fit together with their substrate like a “lock and key”
    • At the end of a chemical reaction, the enzyme is unchanged; the substrate has been changed into a product
    • Conditions like temperature and pH can affect how enzymes do their jobs; extreme temperatures and pH can denature an enzyme (“destroy”)
  4. Four Types of Macromolecules

    Slide 4 - Four Types of Macromolecules

    • Proteins
    • Nucleic Acids
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
  5. NUCLEIC ACIDS

    Slide 5 - NUCLEIC ACIDS

    • Nucleic acids are organic compounds found in all living things
    • They contain the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus
    • They are polymers built of long chains of monomers called nucleotides
  6.  Function (job) of Nucleic Acids

    Slide 6 - Function (job) of Nucleic Acids

    • Nucleic acids are used to store and transmit genetic information (parent  child)
    • Examples include DNA and RNA
  7. CARBOHYDRATES

    Slide 7 - CARBOHYDRATES

    • All carbohydrates contain the elements carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O).
    • Carbohydrates are the main source of energy for living things.
    • Simple sugars provide immediate energy
    • Complex carbohydrates (starches) provide long-term energy
  8. Length of Carbohydrate Chains

    Slide 8 - Length of Carbohydrate Chains

    • The longer the “chain” the longer-lasting the energy
  9. Simple Sugars

    Slide 9 - Simple Sugars

    • Sugars are carbohydrate monomers.
    • Glucose, fructose, and sucrose are examples.
    • Fastest, most immediate source of energy (+)
    • Burned / used up quickly (-)
    • Found in foods that are sweet!
  10. Complex Carbohydrates

    Slide 10 - Complex Carbohydrates

    • Complex carbohydrates are polymers
    • Starch, cellulose (“fiber”) and glycogen are examples
    • Long-lasting energy; burned/used slowly (+)
    • Takes some time to release energy (-)
    • Found in potatoes, breads, pastas, and grains (starchy foods)
  11. Dehydration and Hydrolysis Reactions

    Slide 11 - Dehydration and Hydrolysis Reactions

    • Example of a dehydration reaction:
    • Potato plant makes starch out of sugars (from photosynthesis)
    • Example of a hydrolysis reaction:
    • Your digestive system breaks down starch from
    • French fries you ate
  12. Summary

    Slide 12 - Summary

    • Nucleic Acids: polymers (monomers = nucleotides)
    • Store and transmit genetic information
    • Carbohydrates: polymers (“complex”) (monomers = sugars)
    • Mostly used for energy (longer chain = longer energy!)
    • Many are “ring shaped” (you should be able to recognize a carbohydrate if you saw a picture of the chemical structure!)