The Genetic Code

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The Genetic Code

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  1. The Genetic Code

    Slide 1 - The Genetic Code

  2. Review

    Slide 2 - Review

    • DNA is nucleic acid. It is a long-chained molecule made of nucleotides. It is found in the nucleus of every cell
    • The structure of DNA is basically the same in all living things.
    • Backbone = sugar and phosphate
    • Middle = nitrogen bases (A, T, G, C)
    • A always pairs with T, G always pairs with C
    • DNA replication is the process of copying DNA
    • The two strands separate
    • One new strand is built on top of each existing strand (use base pairing)
  3. What is a Gene?

    Slide 3 - What is a Gene?

    • A segment of DNA that contains instructions for building a protein
  4. A Familiar Analogy:

    Slide 4 - A Familiar Analogy:

  5. The Genetic Code: Two Key Processes

    Slide 5 - The Genetic Code: Two Key Processes

    • Transcription: copying the information from the gene
    • (copy leaves the nucleus)
    • Translation: decoding the information / building a protein
  6. Step 1: TRANSCRIPTION

    Slide 6 - Step 1: TRANSCRIPTION

    • DNA  RNA
    • DNA
    • RNA
    • Number of Strands?
    • 2
    • 1
    • Nitrogen Bases?
    • A, T, G, C
    • A, U, G, C
    • Sugar?
    • Deoxyribose
    • Ribose
  7. Example:

    Slide 7 - Example:

    • DNA
    • RNA
    • Protein
    • AAT GGC CCA ATT
    • TTT GTT CTT ACT
    • CCC CAC ACT TCC
  8. Example:

    Slide 8 - Example:

    • DNA
    • RNA
    • Protein
    • AAT GGC CCA ATT
    • UUA CCG GGU UAA
    • TTT GTT CTT ACT
    • AAA CAA GAA UGA
    • CCC CAC ACT TCC
    • GGG GUG UGA AGG
  9. Step 2: Translation

    Slide 9 - Step 2: Translation

    • RNA  PROTEIN
    • Nucleotides  Amino Acids
  10. CODON CHART

    Slide 10 - CODON CHART

    • CODON = 3 letter combination in RNA
    • Corresponds with an amino acid
    • Ex: UCG = serine
    • STOP codons = STOP!
  11. Example:

    Slide 11 - Example:

    • DNA
    • RNA
    • Protein
    • AAT GGC CCA ATT
    • UUA CCG GGU UAA
    • Leucine-proline-glycine
    • TTT GTT CTT ACT
    • AAA CAA GAA UGA
    • CCC CAC ACT TCC
    • GGG GUG UGA AGG
  12. Example:

    Slide 12 - Example:

    • DNA
    • RNA
    • Protein
    • AAT GGC CCA ATT
    • UUA CCG GGU UAA
    • Leucine-proline-glycine
    • TTT GTT CTT ACT
    • AAA CAA GAA UGA
    • Lysine-glutamine-glutamic acid
    • CCC CAC ACT TCC
    • GGG GUG UGA AGG
    • Glycine-valine
  13. Summary of Transcription and Translation

    Slide 13 - Summary of Transcription and Translation

    • Transcription
    • Translation
    • Where does it occur?
    • NUCLEUS
    • RIBOSOME (“protein factory!”)
    • What does it start with?
    • DNA
    • RNA
    • What does it end with?
    • RNA
    • Protein (long chain of amino acids)