Self Guided Lesson 2 Memory and Cognition
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Slide 1 - Memory and Cognition
- Self Guided Lesson 2
Slide 2 - Physiology of Memory
- No such thing as an engram (Lashley, 1950)
- Instead, memory exists as neural connections
- Increased learning = increased neural connections
- Long term potentiation
- Strengthening of neural transmission
- Drugs that act as agonists and antagonists for the neurotransmitters (like glutamate) involved in LTP can alter memory formation.
- These same neurotransmitters can be enhanced naturally by sleep.
- Emotion and memory
- Traumatic or emotional experiences enhance memory formation.
- What Freudian principle does this scientific finding dispute?
Slide 4 - Examining Types of Memories
- Autobiographical memory
- Flashbulb memory
- Prospective Memory – when you remember what you need to do in the future.
Slide 5 - Flashbulb memories
- Where were you when?
- We are highly confident about their accuracy
- BUT flashbulb memories are highly susceptible to distortion.
- The Hippocampus
- Explicit memories are processed here
- The Cerebellum
- Formation and storage of implicit memories
- Also called procedural memory
- Riding a bike
- Playing the piano
- Ice skating
Slide 8 - Retrieval – Getting Information Out
- Recall – when one must retrieve previously learned information
- Like a fill in the blank
- Elderly people lose this first
- Recognition – when one must identify previously learned information
- Like multiple choice
- Elderly people retain this longer
Slide 9 - Retrieval Cues
- Memories are like spider webs….interconnected and interwoven
- We retrieve information the way we encode it.
- Mnemonic devices
- Cognitive maps
- Priming – activation of associated information outside of our awareness
Slide 10 - Context effect
- Godden and Baddeley – scuba diver experiment
- Deja vu
- State – dependent memory
- Mood congruent memory
- Rosy retrospective