Princeton - Era 5 - WWII Europe Notes

World War II
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Princeton - Era 5 - WWII Europe Notes

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  1. World

    Slide 1 - World

    • War II
  2. The Road

    Slide 2 - The Road

    • to
    • War:
    • 1919-1939
  3. New Economic Policy

    Slide 3 - New Economic Policy

    • Incorporated capitalist ideas
    • Needed to help rebuild Russian economy following WWI & Civil War
    • Lenin died before full implementation
  4. Joseph Stalin

    Slide 4 - Joseph Stalin

    • Emerged as the unchallenged dictator of the new Soviet Union in 1928
    • Wanted Russia to be an industrial powerhouse
    • Felt Lenin’s NEP was progressing too slowly
  5. First Five Year Plan

    Slide 5 - First Five Year Plan

    • Stalin’s economic plan (beg. 1928)
    • Wanted to increase productivity in steel and machinery industries
    • Wanted extreme centralization of entire economy
  6. Collectivization of Agriculture

    Slide 6 - Collectivization of Agriculture

    • Soviet state took control of private farmland
    • Unpopular and problematic
    • Stalin believed it would increase agricultural production
    • Really bad for kulaks – peasants made prosperous during NEP
  7. Collectivization of Agriculture

    Slide 7 - Collectivization of Agriculture

    • Millions of peasants died from starvation and millions moved to cities to find other work
    • Stalin abandoned COA in 1931
  8. Great Purge

    Slide 8 - Great Purge

    • Stalin had all opposition killed or held prisoner
    • 3 million dead
    • 8 million in labor camps (Siberia)
  9. Great Depression

    Slide 9 - Great Depression

    • 1929 - world plunged into an economic depression for ten years
    • WWII would help to bring world out of depression
  10. Great Depression

    Slide 10 - Great Depression

    • Capitalism was failing around the world which made communism seem appealing to some
  11. Great Depression

    Slide 11 - Great Depression

    • stock market practices in U.S. were mismanaged and unsustainable
    • improper mortgage financing
  12. Great Depression

    Slide 12 - Great Depression

    • U.S. economy, and soon the world economy, toppled
    • Agricultural economies in Latin America, Africa, and Asia also suffered
    • depended on export of few products (coffee, cocoa, sugar, cotton, rubber, etc.)
  13. Great Depression

    Slide 13 - Great Depression

    • affected every industrialized society
    • Japan and Germany suffered the most
    • Japan – relied on U.S. markets, U.S. put high tariffs on all foreign imports
    • Germany – 35% unemployment by 1932
    • Britain and France survived by forcing their colonies to buy their products
    • U.S. survived from new gov’t. programs (New Deal)
  14. Japan Invades Manchuria, 1931

    Slide 14 - Japan Invades Manchuria, 1931

  15. Germany Invades the RhinelandMarch 7, 1936

    Slide 15 - Germany Invades the RhinelandMarch 7, 1936

  16. U. S. Neutrality Acts:1934, 1935, 1937, 1939

    Slide 16 - U. S. Neutrality Acts:1934, 1935, 1937, 1939

  17. Rome-Berlin Axis, 1936

    Slide 17 - Rome-Berlin Axis, 1936

    • The “Pact of Steel”
  18. Italian Invasion of Ethiopia, 1936

    Slide 18 - Italian Invasion of Ethiopia, 1936

  19. The Japanese Invasionof China, 1937

    Slide 19 - The Japanese Invasionof China, 1937

  20. The Austrian Anschluss, 1938

    Slide 20 - The Austrian Anschluss, 1938

  21. The “Problem” of theSudetenland

    Slide 21 - The “Problem” of theSudetenland

  22. Appeasement:  The Munich Agreement, 1938

    Slide 22 - Appeasement: The Munich Agreement, 1938

    • Now we have “peace in our time!” Herr Hitler is a man we can do business with.
    • British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain
  23. Czechoslovakia Becomes Part of the Third Reich:  1939

    Slide 23 - Czechoslovakia Becomes Part of the Third Reich: 1939

  24. The Nazi-SovietNon-Aggression Pact, 1939

    Slide 24 - The Nazi-SovietNon-Aggression Pact, 1939

    • Foreign Ministers von Ribbentrop & Molotov
  25. Poland Attacked: Sept. 1, 1939

    Slide 25 - Poland Attacked: Sept. 1, 1939

    • Blitzkrieg [“Lightening War”]
  26. German Troops March into Warsaw

    Slide 26 - German Troops March into Warsaw

  27. The

    Slide 27 - The

    • War
    • Begins!
  28. Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis, 1940

    Slide 28 - Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis, 1940

    • The Tripartite Pact
  29. The European

    Slide 29 - The European

    • & North African
    • Theaters
  30. The “Phoney War” Ends:Spring, 1940

    Slide 30 - The “Phoney War” Ends:Spring, 1940

  31. Dunkirk EvacuatedJune 4, 1940

    Slide 31 - Dunkirk EvacuatedJune 4, 1940

  32. France SurrendersJune, 1940

    Slide 32 - France SurrendersJune, 1940

  33. A Divided France

    Slide 33 - A Divided France

    • Henri Petain
  34. The French Resistance

    Slide 34 - The French Resistance

    • The Free French
    • General Charles DeGaulle
    • The Maquis
  35. Now Britain Is All Alone!

    Slide 35 - Now Britain Is All Alone!

  36. Great Britain.........................$31 billionSoviet Union..........................$11 billionFrance..................................$3 billionChina..................................$1.5 billionOther European......................$500 millionSouth America.......................$400 million     The amount totaled: $48,601,365,000

    Slide 36 - Great Britain.........................$31 billionSoviet Union..........................$11 billionFrance..................................$3 billionChina..................................$1.5 billionOther European......................$500 millionSouth America.......................$400 million The amount totaled: $48,601,365,000

    • U.S. Lend-Lease Act,1941
  37. Battle of Britain:The “Blitz”

    Slide 37 - Battle of Britain:The “Blitz”

  38. Battle of Britain:The “Blitz”

    Slide 38 - Battle of Britain:The “Blitz”

  39. The London “Tube”:Air Raid Shelters during the Blitz

    Slide 39 - The London “Tube”:Air Raid Shelters during the Blitz

  40. The Royal Air Force

    Slide 40 - The Royal Air Force

  41. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill

    Slide 41 - British Prime Minister Winston Churchill

  42. Axis Powers in 1942

    Slide 43 - Axis Powers in 1942

  43. North African Campaign

    Slide 44 - North African Campaign

  44. The Atlantic Charter

    Slide 45 - The Atlantic Charter

    • Roosevelt and Churchill sign treaty of friendship in August 1941.
    • Solidifies alliance.
    • Fashioned after Wilson’s 14 Points.
    • Calls for League of Nations type organization.
  45. Horrors of the Holocaust Exposed

    Slide 46 - Horrors of the Holocaust Exposed

  46. Crematoria at Majdanek

    Slide 47 - Crematoria at Majdanek

    • Entrance to Auschwitz:Work Makes You Free
    • Horrors of the Holocaust Exposed
  47. Horrors of the Holocaust Exposed

    Slide 48 - Horrors of the Holocaust Exposed

    • Slave Labor at Buchenwald
    • Eli Wiesel
  48. Horrors of the Holocaust Exposed

    Slide 49 - Horrors of the Holocaust Exposed

    • Mass Graves at Bergen-Belsen
  49. Operation Barbarossa:Hitler’s Biggest Mistake

    Slide 50 - Operation Barbarossa:Hitler’s Biggest Mistake

  50. Operation Barbarossa: June 22, 1941

    Slide 51 - Operation Barbarossa: June 22, 1941

    • 3,000,000 German soldiers.
    • 3,400 tanks.
  51. The “Big Three”

    Slide 52 - The “Big Three”

    • Winston Churchill, Franklin Roosevelt, Joseph Stalin
  52. Battle of Stalingrad:Winter of 1942-1943

    Slide 53 - Battle of Stalingrad:Winter of 1942-1943

    • German Army
    • Russian Army
    • 1,011,500 men
    • 1,000,500 men
    • 10,290 artillery guns
    • 13,541 artillery guns
    • 675 tanks
    • 894 tanks
    • 1,216 planes
    • 1,115 planes
  53.  The North Africa Campaign:       The Battle of El Alamein, 1942

    Slide 54 - The North Africa Campaign: The Battle of El Alamein, 1942

    • Gen. Ernst Rommel,The “Desert Fox”
    • Gen. Bernard LawMontgomery(“Monty”)
  54. The Italian Campaign [“Operation Torch”] :Europe’s “Soft Underbelly”

    Slide 55 - The Italian Campaign [“Operation Torch”] :Europe’s “Soft Underbelly”

    • Allies plan assault on weakest Axis area - North Africa - Nov. 1942-May 1943
    • George S. Patton leads American troops
    • Germans trapped in Tunisia - surrender over 275,000 troops.
  55.       The Battle for Sicily:                  June, 1943

    Slide 56 - The Battle for Sicily: June, 1943

    • General George S. Patton
  56. George C. Scott Playing General Patton in the 1968 Movie, “Patton”

    Slide 57 - George C. Scott Playing General Patton in the 1968 Movie, “Patton”

  57. The Battle of Monte Casino:February, 1944

    Slide 58 - The Battle of Monte Casino:February, 1944

  58. The Allies Liberate Rome:June 5, 1944

    Slide 59 - The Allies Liberate Rome:June 5, 1944

  59. Gen. Eisenhower Gives the Orders for D-Day [“Operation Overlord”]

    Slide 60 - Gen. Eisenhower Gives the Orders for D-Day [“Operation Overlord”]

  60. D-Day (June 6, 1944)

    Slide 61 - D-Day (June 6, 1944)

  61.            Normandy Landing                (June 6, 1944)

    Slide 62 - Normandy Landing (June 6, 1944)

    • Higgins Landing Crafts
    • German Prisoners
  62. D-Day (June 6, 1944)

    Slide 63 - D-Day (June 6, 1944)

  63. D-Day (June 6, 1944)

    Slide 64 - D-Day (June 6, 1944)

    • “It all seemed unreal, a sort of dreaming while awake, men were screaming and dying all around me… I honestly could have walked the full length of the beach without touching the ground, they were that thickly strewn about.”
    • - Melvin B. Farrell (U.S. soldier)
  64. European Theater of Operations

    Slide 65 - European Theater of Operations

  65. July 20, 1944 Assassination Plot

    Slide 66 - July 20, 1944 Assassination Plot

    • Major Claus vonStauffenberg
  66. July 20, 1944 Assassination Plot

    Slide 67 - July 20, 1944 Assassination Plot

    • 1. Adolf Hitler 2. Field Marshall Wilhelm Keitel 3. Gen Alfred von Jodl 4. Gen Walter Warlimont 5. Franz von Sonnleithner 6. Maj Herbert Buchs 7. Stenographer Heinz Buchholz 8. Lt Gen Hermann Fegelein 9. Col Nikolaus von Below10. Rear Adm Hans-Erich Voss11. Otto Gunsche, Hitler's adjutant12. Gen Walter Scherff (injured)13. Gen Ernst John von Freyend14. Capt Heinz Assman (injured)
    •       E-mail this to a friend
  67. The Liberation of Paris:August 25, 1944

    Slide 68 - The Liberation of Paris:August 25, 1944

    • De Gaulle in Triumph!
  68. U. S. Troops in Paris, 1944

    Slide 69 - U. S. Troops in Paris, 1944

  69. French Female Collaborators

    Slide 70 - French Female Collaborators

  70. The Battle of the Bulge:Hitler’s Last Offensive

    Slide 71 - The Battle of the Bulge:Hitler’s Last Offensive

    • Dec. 16, 1944toJan. 28, 1945
  71. Yalta:  February, 1945

    Slide 72 - Yalta: February, 1945

    • FDR wants quick Soviet entry into Pacific war.
    • FDR & Churchill concede Stalin needs buffer, FDR & Stalin want spheres of influence and a weak Germany.
    • Churchill wants strong Germany as bufferagainst Stalin.
    • FDR argues for a ‘United Nations’.
  72. Mussolini & His Mistress,Claretta Petacci Are Hung in Milan, 1945

    Slide 73 - Mussolini & His Mistress,Claretta Petacci Are Hung in Milan, 1945

  73. US & Russian Soldiers Meet at the Elbe River:  April 25, 1945

    Slide 74 - US & Russian Soldiers Meet at the Elbe River: April 25, 1945

  74. Hitler’s “Secret Weapons”:Too Little, Too Late!

    Slide 75 - Hitler’s “Secret Weapons”:Too Little, Too Late!

    • V-1 Rocket:“Buzz Bomb”
    • V-2 Rocket
    • Werner von Braun
  75. Hitler Commits Suicide April 30, 1945

    Slide 76 - Hitler Commits Suicide April 30, 1945

    • The Führer’s Bunker
    • Cyanide & Pistols
    • Mr. & Mrs. Hitler
  76. V-E Day (May 8, 1945)

    Slide 77 - V-E Day (May 8, 1945)

    • General Keitel
  77. V-E Day (May 8, 1945)

    Slide 78 - V-E Day (May 8, 1945)

  78. The Code Breakers of WW II

    Slide 79 - The Code Breakers of WW II

    • Bletchley Park
    • The German “Enigma” Machine
    • The Japanese “Purple” [naval] Code Machine
  79. The

    Slide 80 - The

    • Pacific
    • Theater
  80. Pearl Harbor

    Slide 81 - Pearl Harbor

  81. Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto

    Slide 82 - Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto

  82. Pearl Harbor from the Cockpit of a Japanese Pilot

    Slide 83 - Pearl Harbor from the Cockpit of a Japanese Pilot

  83. Pearl Harbor - Dec. 7, 1941

    Slide 84 - Pearl Harbor - Dec. 7, 1941

    • A date which will live in infamy!
  84. President Roosevelt Signs the US Declaration of War

    Slide 85 - President Roosevelt Signs the US Declaration of War

  85. USS Arizona, Pearl Harbor

    Slide 86 - USS Arizona, Pearl Harbor

  86. Pearl Harbor Memorial

    Slide 87 - Pearl Harbor Memorial

    • 2,887 Americans Dead!
  87. Pacific Theater of Operations

    Slide 88 - Pacific Theater of Operations

  88. “Tokyo Rose”

    Slide 89 - “Tokyo Rose”

  89. Paying for the War

    Slide 90 - Paying for the War

  90. Paying for the War

    Slide 91 - Paying for the War

  91. Paying for the War

    Slide 92 - Paying for the War

  92. Betty Grable: Allied Pinup GirlShe Reminded Men What They Were Fighting For

    Slide 93 - Betty Grable: Allied Pinup GirlShe Reminded Men What They Were Fighting For

  93. Singapore Surrenders[February, 1942]

    Slide 94 - Singapore Surrenders[February, 1942]

  94. U.S. Surrenders at Corregidor,the Philippines [March, 1942]

    Slide 95 - U.S. Surrenders at Corregidor,the Philippines [March, 1942]

  95. Bataan Death March: April, 1942

    Slide 96 - Bataan Death March: April, 1942

    • 76,000 prisoners [12,000 Americans] Marched 60 miles in the blazing heat to POW camps in the Philippines.
  96. Bataan: British Soldiers

    Slide 97 - Bataan: British Soldiers

    • A Liberated British POW
  97. The Burma Campaign

    Slide 98 - The Burma Campaign

    • The “Burma Road”
    • General Stilwell Leaving Burma, 1942
  98. Allied Counter-Offensive:“Island-Hopping”

    Slide 99 - Allied Counter-Offensive:“Island-Hopping”

  99. “Island-Hopping”:  US Troops on Kwajalien Island

    Slide 100 - “Island-Hopping”: US Troops on Kwajalien Island

  100. Farthest Extent of Japanese Conquests

    Slide 101 - Farthest Extent of Japanese Conquests

  101. Lt. Col. Jimmy Doolittle:First U.S. Raids on Tokyo, 1942

    Slide 102 - Lt. Col. Jimmy Doolittle:First U.S. Raids on Tokyo, 1942

  102. Battle of the Coral Sea:May 7-8, 1942

    Slide 103 - Battle of the Coral Sea:May 7-8, 1942

  103. Battle of Midway Island:June 4-6, 1942

    Slide 104 - Battle of Midway Island:June 4-6, 1942

  104. Battle of Midway Island:June 4-6, 1942

    Slide 105 - Battle of Midway Island:June 4-6, 1942

  105. Japanese Kamikaze Planes:The Scourge of the South Pacific

    Slide 106 - Japanese Kamikaze Planes:The Scourge of the South Pacific

    • Kamikaze Pilots
    • Suicide Bombers
  106. Gen. MacArthur “Returns” to the Philippines!  [1944]

    Slide 107 - Gen. MacArthur “Returns” to the Philippines! [1944]

  107. US Marines on Mt. Surbachi,Iwo Jima [Feb. 19, 1945]

    Slide 108 - US Marines on Mt. Surbachi,Iwo Jima [Feb. 19, 1945]

  108. Potsdam Conference:July, 1945

    Slide 109 - Potsdam Conference:July, 1945

    • FDR dead, Churchill out of office as Prime Minister during conference.
    • Stalin only original.
    • The United States has the A-bomb.
    • Allies agree Germany is to be divided into occupation zones
    • Poland moved around to suit the Soviets.
    • P.M. Clement President Joseph Atlee Truman Stalin
  109. The Manhattan Project:Los Alamos, NM

    Slide 110 - The Manhattan Project:Los Alamos, NM

    • Dr. Robert Oppenheimer
    • I am become death, the shatterer of worlds!
    • Major GeneralLesley R. Groves
  110. Tinian Island, 1945

    Slide 111 - Tinian Island, 1945

    • Little Boy
    • (uranium)
    • Enola Gay Crew
    • Fat Man
    • (plutonium)
  111. Col. Paul Tibbets & the A-Bomb

    Slide 112 - Col. Paul Tibbets & the A-Bomb

  112. Hiroshima – August 6, 1945

    Slide 113 - Hiroshima – August 6, 1945

    • 70,000 killed immediately.
    • 48,000 buildings. destroyed.
    • 100,000s died of radiation poisoning & cancer later.
  113. Nagasaki – August 9, 1945

    Slide 114 - Nagasaki – August 9, 1945

    • 40,000 killed immediately.
    • 60,000 injured.
    • 100,000s died ofradiation poisoning& cancer later.
  114. Japanese A-Bomb Survivors

    Slide 115 - Japanese A-Bomb Survivors

  115. Hiroshima Memorials

    Slide 116 - Hiroshima Memorials

    • Sadako Sasaki’s story
  116. V-J Day (September 2, 1945)

    Slide 117 - V-J Day (September 2, 1945)

  117. Japanese POWs, Guam

    Slide 118 - Japanese POWs, Guam

  118. V-J Day in Times Square, NYC

    Slide 119 - V-J Day in Times Square, NYC

  119. Results

    Slide 120 - Results

    • of
    • World War II
  120. WWII Casualties: Europe

    Slide 121 - WWII Casualties: Europe

    • Each symbol indicates 100,000 dead in the appropriate theater of operations
  121. WWII Casualties: Asia

    Slide 122 - WWII Casualties: Asia

    • Each symbol indicates 100,000 dead in the appropriate theater of operations
  122. WWII Casualties

    Slide 123 - WWII Casualties

    • Country
    • Men in war
    • Battle deaths
    • Wounded
    • Australia
    • 1,000,000
    • 26,976
    • 180,864
    • Austria
    • 800,000
    • 280,000
    • 350,117
    • Belgium
    • 625,000
    • 8,460
    • 55,5131
    • Brazil2
    • 40,334
    • 943
    • 4,222
    • Bulgaria
    • 339,760
    • 6,671
    • 21,878
    • Canada
    • 1,086,3437
    • 42,0427
    • 53,145
    • China3
    • 17,250,521
    • 1,324,516
    • 1,762,006
    • Czechoslovakia
    • 6,6834
    • 8,017
    • Denmark
    • 4,339
    • Finland
    • 500,000
    • 79,047
    • 50,000
    • France
    • 201,568
    • 400,000
    • Germany
    • 20,000,000
    • 3,250,0004
    • 7,250,000
    • Greece
    • 17,024
    • 47,290
    • Hungary
    • 147,435
    • 89,313
    • India
    • 2,393,891
    • 32,121
    • 64,354
    • Italy
    • 3,100,000
    • 149,4964
    • 66,716
    • Japan
    • 9,700,000
    • 1,270,000
    • 140,000
    • Netherlands
    • 280,000
    • 6,500
    • 2,860
    • New Zealand
    • 194,000
    • 11,6254
    • 17,000
    • Norway
    • 75,000
    • 2,000
    • Poland
    • 664,000
    • 530,000
    • Romania
    • 650,0005
    • 350,0006
    • South Africa
    • 410,056
    • 2,473
    • U.S.S.R.
    • 6,115,0004
    • 14,012,000
    • United Kingdom
    • 5,896,000
    • 357,1164
    • 369,267
    • United States
    • 16,112,566
    • 291,557
    • 670,846
    • Yugoslavia
    • 3,741,000
    • 305,000
    • 425,000
    • Civilians only.
    • Army and navy figures.
    • Figures cover period July 7, 1937 to Sept. 2, 1945, and concern only Chinese regular troops. They do not include casualties suffered by guerrillas and local military corps.
    • Deaths from all causes.
    • Against Soviet Russia; 385,847 against Nazi Germany.
    • Against Soviet Russia; 169,822against Nazi Germany.
    • National Defense Ctr., CanadianForces Hq., Director of History.
  123. Massive Human Dislocations

    Slide 124 - Massive Human Dislocations

  124. The U.S. & the U.S.S.R. Emerged as the Two Superpowers of the later 20c

    Slide 125 - The U.S. & the U.S.S.R. Emerged as the Two Superpowers of the later 20c

  125. The Bi-Polarization of Europe:  The Beginning of the Cold War

    Slide 126 - The Bi-Polarization of Europe: The Beginning of the Cold War

  126. Marshall Plan

    Slide 127 - Marshall Plan

    • GOAL: rebuild Europe into strong & stable economies that won’t turn to communism
  127. The Creation of the U. N.

    Slide 128 - The Creation of the U. N.

  128. The Nuremberg War Trials:Crimes Against Humanity

    Slide 129 - The Nuremberg War Trials:Crimes Against Humanity

  129. Japanese War Crimes Trials

    Slide 130 - Japanese War Crimes Trials

    • General Hideki Tojo
  130. 7 Future American Presidents Served in World War II

    Slide 131 - 7 Future American Presidents Served in World War II

  131. The Race for Space

    Slide 132 - The Race for Space

  132.  Early Computer Technology Came Out of WW II

    Slide 133 - Early Computer Technology Came Out of WW II

    • Mark I, 1944
    • Admiral Grace Hooper, 1944-1992COBOL language
    • Colossus, 1941
  133. The Emergence of Third World Nationalist Movements

    Slide 134 - The Emergence of Third World Nationalist Movements

  134. The De-Colonization of European Empires

    Slide 135 - The De-Colonization of European Empires

  135. The World

    Slide 136 - The World

    • We Live in Today
    • Was Formed
    • by the Events
    • of World War II & its
    • immediate aftermath!