CH4 SVmix_IntroAndBinaryNumbers

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CH4 SVmix_IntroAndBinaryNumbers

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  1. Slide 1

    • Network Addressing
    • Lesson 4
    • https://www.h3c.com/portal/Technical_Support___Documents/Technical_Documents/Switches/
  2. Objectives

    Slide 2 - Objectives

    • Exam Objective Matrix
    • Technology Skill Covered
    • Exam Objective
    • Exam Objective Number
    • Physical Addressing
    • Classify how applications, devices, and protocols relate to the OSI model layers.
    • • MAC Address
    • Explain the purpose and properties of IP addressing.
    • • MAC address format
    • 1.2
    • 1.3
    • Logical Addressing
    • Classify how applications, devices, and protocols relate to the OSI
    • model layers.
    • • EUI-64
    • Explain the purpose and properties of IP addressing.
    • • Classes of addresses
    • • A, B, C and D
    • • Classless (CIDR)
    • • IPv4 vs. IPv6 (formatting)
    • • Subnetting
    • 1.2
    • 1.3
  3. Objectives

    Slide 3 - Objectives

    • Exam Objective Matrix
    • Technology Skill Covered
    • Exam Objective
    • Exam Objective Number
    • How Physical and Logical Addressing Work Together
    • Explain the purpose and properties of IP addressing.
    • • MAC address format
    • Explain the purpose and properties of routing and switching.
    • • Broadcast domain vs. collision domain
    • 1.3
    • 1.4
    • Other Addressing Technologies
    • Explain the purpose and properties of IP addressing.
    • • Classes of addresses
    • • Public vs. Private
    • • Multicast vs. unicast vs. broadcast
    • • APIPA
    • Given a scenario, install and configure routers and switches.
    • • NAT
    • • PAT
    • Explain the purpose and properties of DHCP.
    • • Static vs. dynamic IP addressing
    • Given a scenario, install and configure a basic firewall.
    • • NAT/PAT
    • 1.3
    • 2.1
    • 2.3
    • 5.5
  4. Compare Network Physical Address to Sending Mail

    Slide 4 - Compare Network Physical Address to Sending Mail

    • You have a the sender (Source) address
    • You have the recipient (Destination) address
    • In the case of US Mail, these are “physical” addresses
    • Source
    • Destination
    • Well – guess what? You have a Physical Source and Destination Addresses in Networking too!
  5. But - In Networking, there are 2 types of addresses

    Slide 5 - But - In Networking, there are 2 types of addresses

    • Physical
    • Source Physical Address
    • Destination Physical Address
    • Logical
    • Source IP address
    • Destination IP Address
    • Networked devices (printers, computers, iPads, iPhones, laptops, etc.)…..need both
    • Why? See “Notes” on this slide
  6. So What is the Physical Address?

    Slide 6 - So What is the Physical Address?

    • The Physical network address is the physical binary address every network device has from manufacturer (hard coded)
    • A.K.A. device’s MAC address (media access control)
    • The Physical address of a network device is 48 bits long
    • Made up of 1s and 0s & usually hexadecimal format
    • www.cnblogs.com
  7. Physical Addressing (Continued)

    Slide 7 - Physical Addressing (Continued)

    • A Hexadecimal Number is used for the Physical (MAC) Addresses
    • 91-FC-5D-D9-A3-B0
    • In Binary, this amounts to 48 bits:
    • 100100011111110001011101
    • 110110011010001110110000
    • First 24 bits is Organizationally Unique Identifier
    • Last 24 bits is host portion
  8. The Function of MAC Addressing

    Slide 8 - The Function of MAC Addressing

    • Refers to the function of the physical address, while the term “physical address” more often refers to the actual thing
    • A computer or network device uses the MAC address to move data frames from one computer or network device to an adjacent computer or network device
    • Hop: Each time a computer or network device hands off data frame to the next computer or network device down the line
  9. But the bad guys can “Spoof” a MAC Address

    Slide 9 - But the bad guys can “Spoof” a MAC Address

    • To trick other computers on a network into thinking a computer's MAC address is one physical address when it is actually a different physical address
    • Hackers use MAC spoofing get into a network
    • Attacker is now spoofing MAC AABBCC by hacking into Port 2 of the switch
    • http://www.secureleaves.com/tag/security/
    • http://www.baratosdaribeiro.com.br
  10. IPv6 Enhancements for Physical Addresses:  EUI-60 and EUI-64

    Slide 10 - IPv6 Enhancements for Physical Addresses: EUI-60 and EUI-64

    • Variations on conventional MAC address
    • 60-bit Extended Unique Identifier (EUI-60)
    • The host extension is 36-bits long rather than 24-bits long
    • 64-bit Extended Unique Identifier (EUI-64)
    • The host extension is 40 bits long, allowing for more host addresses per OUI (Organization)
    • IPv6 can use EUI-64 to create a unique interface identifier
    • Here is a simple video on how it works!
  11. EUI-64 (Extended Unique Identifier) - pictured

    Slide 11 - EUI-64 (Extended Unique Identifier) - pictured

    • Comparison of what you would have with your normal 48 bit MAC address versus what you will get with the Extended Unique Address with IPv6 EUI-64.
    • http://wiki.mikrotik.com/wiki/Manual:IPv6/Address
  12. So What is Logical Addressing

    Slide 12 - So What is Logical Addressing

    • Every computer on a network needs a unique logical address
    • Used to ensure data packet follows best path to destination computer
    • We use the “IP Addresses” in be the logical addresses.
    • IP addresses can either be in IPv4 (Internet Protocol Version 4) or IPv6 (Internet Protocol Version 6)
    • Oh no! Not another definition to learn?
    • Lifehack.org
  13. RE:  Logical Addresses - Most of us Use Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) (the older version of IP still in existence)

    Slide 13 - RE: Logical Addresses - Most of us Use Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) (the older version of IP still in existence)

    • IPv4 logical address is 32 bits long
    • 4 groups of 8 bits called octets
    • Expressed in 32 bit binary format
    • 11000000100000101110001100011011
    • AND same thing in 8-bit decimal format per octet as 192.130.227.27
    • BUT – with only 4 billion addresses in IPv4 address space, we have nearly exhausted the supply of addresses
    • That’s 32 bits
  14. Without more ado, let’s review binary (it’s not that hard and logical addresses use it)

    Slide 14 - Without more ado, let’s review binary (it’s not that hard and logical addresses use it)

    • From the previous slide, here was our IP address in decimal  192.130.227.27
    • Here it is in binary 11000000100000101110001100011011
    • Here is how it matches up:
    • 192 130 227 27
    • 11000000 10000010 11100011 00011011
    • The next slide shows WHY it matches up like that
  15. Here is our 192 in binary

    Slide 15 - Here is our 192 in binary

    • First, look at this table for the 8 bits in a binary number:
    • So, 192 (the first decimal in our IP address of 192.130.227.27, would be the 128 + 64 below
    • 27
    • 26
    • 27
    • 24
    • 23
    • 22
    • 21
    • 20
    • 128
    • 64
    • 32
    • 16
    • 8
    • 4
    • 2
    • 1
    • 27 is just 2 multiplied by itself 7 times:2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 = 128
    • 27
    • 26
    • 27
    • 24
    • 23
    • 22
    • 21
    • 20
    • 128
    • 64
    • 32
    • 16
    • 8
    • 4
    • 2
    • 1
    • Does 128 + 64 = 192? I sure hope so
    • And so on - 26 is 2 multiplied by 2 (6 times) – which is 64; the other cells are computed similarly
  16. Let’s work thru an Example on how to convert a decimal number to binary

    Slide 16 - Let’s work thru an Example on how to convert a decimal number to binary

    • Convert 130 to binary
    • Which number in second row of table is the largest number that we can subtract from 130 without exceeding 130? Answer: 128
    • Place a 1 in row 3 under “128” in the table
    • Still Confused?
    • http://ianchadwick.com
  17. Converting to Decimal (continued)

    Slide 17 - Converting to Decimal (continued)

    • You only accounted for 128 – what about the other 2?
    • http://linksservice.com
    • You’re right: 130 – 128 still leaves 2
    • So……..the smallest number that can be successfully subtracted from 2 is 2, so place a 1 in row 3 under the “2”
  18. Converting to Decimal (continued)

    Slide 18 - Converting to Decimal (continued)

    • Now you can complete the number
    • 128 + 2 is 130 and you can fill in zeroes for the rest
    • Put a 0 in all row 3 positions that do not contain 1s
    • Binary equivalent of 130 is 10000010
    • 128
    • plus
    • 2
  19. By the way – Binary (Base 2) conversion is similar to Base 10

    Slide 19 - By the way – Binary (Base 2) conversion is similar to Base 10

    • Example: The number 14,609,182 placed into a base 10 number system table
    • So, 14,609,182 can be expressed as:
  20. Now that we understand binary

    Slide 20 - Now that we understand binary

    • We can better understand IP addresses
    • We can better understand “subnetting” (next slides)
  21. Subnetting is just subdividing networks

    Slide 21 - Subnetting is just subdividing networks

    • Breaking up an IP address range into smaller pieces so a given range of IP addresses can be used in more than one network
    • IP address has a network portion and a host portion
    • Watch these 2 videos before going any further:
    • Basic Explanation of Subnetting
    • More info on how subnetting works
    • In the case of a Class “C” network
    • Network: First three octets
    • Host: Last octet