17743192 - Najm
By Maroun Najm
Created 2 years ago
Advanced Physiology Race, Altitude and Running. Adaptations to Environment
Email this Mix
Slide 1 - Race, Altitude and Running
- Maroun Najm17743192
Slide 2 - Physiology of the different types of running
- Two main types of running in competition include- Short distance (sprinting) Running
- -Long distance (endurance) Running
- Short Distance running
- Also known as sprinting
- Relies on use of ATP for quick burst of energy (Anaerobic Respiration)
- 2 processes occur to meet energy demands i) cleaving of phosphate from ATP to make ADP ii) anaerobic breakdown of carbohydrates, mainly glycogen (lactic acid Produced)
- Type 2 muscle fibres
Slide 3 - Long distance Running - Endurance
- Also known as Endurance running
- Defined as continuous running over distances of at least 5 km (Ghosh 2004)
- 3 main factors influence endurance i) Maximal oxygen uptake (Vo2 Max)
- ii) Lactate Threshold
- iii) Oxygen Cost of running
- Type 1 fibres are used for long distance/ endurance running
- Aerobic Respiration
Slide 4 - Muscle
Slide 5 - Systemic Effects of Aerobic Running
Slide 6 - Role of Muscle Fibres in Running
- Type 1 Muscle fibre: - Slow-twitch Fibres
- - Long distance running - High fatigue resistance
- Type 2A Muscle Fibre: - Fast-twitch fibres
- - Explosive / anaerobic activity
- - Fast contraction time
- - Moderate fatigue resistance
- Type 2x Muscle Fibre: - Very Fast-twitch fibres
- - Explosive / anaerobic activity
- - Very Fast contraction time
- - Low fatigue resistance
Slide 7 - Altitude
- Acclimatisation in Tibetans as well as Eritreans.
- Different Physiology compared to sea-level populations
- These adaptaional factors have allowed them to survive at high altitudes of 2500m + above sea level.
- As altitude increases, less oxygen is available in the atmosphere
- Acute mountain sickness, hypoxia and oedema.
- High altitude Individuals produced better performance results during endurance activities due to physiological adaptations (Joyner 2007)
Slide 8 - Physiological effects of Altitude
- Increased erythropoietin (EPO) production
- Higher volume of mitochondria. (Holoszey 1984)
- Increase in total blood volume. (Holoszey 1984)
- An increase in the lungs' ability to exchange gases efficiently
- An increase in lung oxygen carrying capacity (Vo2)
- Figure 2- Effects of acclimatizing on fitness
- Figure 1- positive correlation of hemoglobin and Vo2 max in acclimatized individuals
Slide 9 - Training methods and Techniques to stimulate High Altitude Environment
- Training Methods - Altitude Chamber
- - Altitude Training Generators
- - Altitude training masks
- - Altitude Sleeping Chambers
- - Blood Doping (EPO)
- Figure 3- showing effects of athlete (Dvorak) with use of EPO compared to other athletes with no EPO use .
Slide 10 - Different Races and Endurance Running Performances
- Kenyans, Ethiopians as well as Eritreans are well known for their exceptional endurance running performances, specially in comparison to their white and Hispanic counterparts (Lucia 2006).
- Figure 3 – recent top 100 marathon runners (Kenya vs UK)
- Figure 4 – graphs showing the percentage of male Kenyans marathon ranking and gold medal wins
- High altitude birth and upbringing.
- Genetic make up of muscle fibres as well as proteins)
- Environmental factors
- Anthropometric factors (Lucia 2006).
- Running economy (Wilber 2012)
- Glucose > Fat metabolic dependence (Lucia 2006).
- Other Factors Leading to Running Success
Slide 12 - References
- Hopkins, P.H, 2006. Skeletal muscle physiology. Continuing Education in Anaesthesia, Critical Pain and Care, [Online]. 6, 1-6. Available at: http://ceaccp.oxfordjournals.org/content/6/1/1.full [Accessed 02 April 2015].
- Ghosh, A.G, 2004. Anaerobic Threshold: Its Concept and Role in Endurance Sport. The Malaysian Journal Of Medical Sciences, [Online]. 11/1, 24-36. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3438148/ [Accessed 02 April 2015].
- Joyner, Coyle, M.J, E.C, 2007. Endurance exercise performance: the physiology of champions. The Journal of Physiology, [Online]. 586 (pt 1), 35-44. Available at: http:// http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2375555/ [Accessed 03 April 2015]
- Herm, Knechtle, Rust, C.H, B.K, C.R, 2013. Performance of Kenyan athletes in mountain versus flat marathon running - An example in Switzerland - See more at: http://www.jhse.ua.es/jhse/article/view/471#sthash.iB4oLGYI.dpuf. Journal Of Human Sport And Exercise, [Online]. 8/4, 84-91. Available at: http://www.jhse.ua.es/jhse/article/view/471 [Accessed 15 April 2015].
- Wilber, Pitsiladis, R.W, Y.P, 2012. Kenyan and Ethiopian distance runners: what makes them so good?. Us National Library of Medicine National Institutes Of Health, [Online]. 7 (pt 2), 92-102. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22634972 [Accessed 07 April 2015]
- Lucia, Lanao, Olivan, A.L, J.L, J.O, 2006. Physiological characteristics of the best Eritrean runners – exceptional running economy. Physiological characteristics of the best Eritrean runners – exceptional running economy, 31, 530-545
- Holloszy, Coyle, J.H, E.C, 1984. Adaptations of skeletal muscle to endurance exercise and their metabolic consequences. Journal Of Applied Physiology, [Online]. 56/4, 831-838. Available at:http://jap.physiology.org/content/56/4/831 [Accessed 19 April 2015]
- Carzorla, Goret, O.C, L.G, 2006. Effects of high-altitude exercise training on contractile function of rat skinned cardiomyocyte. Oxford University Press Journals, [Online]. 6/20, 652-660. Available at: http://cardiovascres.oxfordjournals.org/content/71/4/652.full?maxtoshow=&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=altitude%20training&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&resourcetype=HWCIT[Accessed 22 April 2015].