17743192 - Najm

Advanced Physiology Race, Altitude and Running. Adaptations to Environment

Physiology
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17743192 - Najm

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Advanced Physiology Race, Altitude and Running. Adaptations to Environment
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  1. Race, Altitude and Running

    Slide 1 - Race, Altitude and Running

    • Maroun Najm17743192
    • http://www.outsideonline.com/sites/default/files/styles/three-quarter-page-scaled-1x/public/migrated-images/prep-for-high-altitude-right-mountain-ridge-runner_fe.jpg?itok=Mi3oMnee
  2. Physiology of the different types of running

    Slide 2 - Physiology of the different types of running

    • Two main types of running in competition include- Short distance (sprinting) Running
    • -Long distance (endurance) Running
    • Short Distance running
    • Also known as sprinting
    • Relies on use of ATP for quick burst of energy (Anaerobic Respiration)
    • 2 processes occur to meet energy demands i) cleaving of phosphate from ATP to make ADP ii) anaerobic breakdown of carbohydrates, mainly glycogen (lactic acid Produced)
    • Type 2 muscle fibres
    • http://digitaltrackandfield.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/sprint-start-boly.jpg
    • http://image.slidesharecdn.com/anaerobicrespiration-131111153524-phpapp01/95/ap-bio-ch-9-anaerobic-respiration-7-638.jpg?cb=1384184348
  3. Long distance Running - Endurance

    Slide 3 - Long distance Running - Endurance

    • Also known as Endurance running
    • Defined as continuous running over distances of at least 5 km (Ghosh 2004)
    • 3 main factors influence endurance i) Maximal oxygen uptake (Vo2 Max)
    • ii) Lactate Threshold
    • iii) Oxygen Cost of running
    • Type 1 fibres are used for long distance/ endurance running
    • Aerobic Respiration
    • http://www.bjjee.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/Kenyans.jpg
    • http://mrhartansscienceclass.pbworks.com/f/1327587937/09-16-CellRespirReview-L.gif
  4. Muscle

    Slide 4 - Muscle

  5. Systemic Effects of Aerobic Running

    Slide 5 - Systemic Effects of Aerobic Running

    • Cardiovascular
    • Neurological
    • Respiratory
    • Cardiorespiratory
  6. Role of Muscle Fibres in Running

    Slide 6 - Role of Muscle Fibres in Running

    • Type 1 Muscle fibre: - Slow-twitch Fibres
    • - Long distance running - High fatigue resistance
    • Type 2A Muscle Fibre: - Fast-twitch fibres
    • - Explosive / anaerobic activity
    • - Fast contraction time
    • - Moderate fatigue resistance
    • Type 2x Muscle Fibre: - Very Fast-twitch fibres
    • - Explosive / anaerobic activity
    • - Very Fast contraction time
    • - Low fatigue resistance
    • http://www.victoris.ugent.be/upload/images/Muscle%20talent%20scan%202.jpg
    • http://www.ideafit.com/files/imagecache/sidebar/files/201005-ifj-30-1.jpg
  7. Altitude

    Slide 7 - Altitude

    • Acclimatisation in Tibetans as well as Eritreans.
    • Different Physiology compared to sea-level populations
    • These adaptaional factors have allowed them to survive at high altitudes of 2500m + above sea level.
    • As altitude increases, less oxygen is available in the atmosphere
    • Acute mountain sickness, hypoxia and oedema.
    • High altitude Individuals produced better performance results during endurance activities due to physiological adaptations (Joyner 2007)
  8. Physiological effects of Altitude

    Slide 8 - Physiological effects of Altitude

    • Increased erythropoietin (EPO) production
    • Higher volume of mitochondria. (Holoszey 1984)
    • Increase in total blood volume. (Holoszey 1984)
    • An increase in the lungs' ability to exchange gases efficiently
    • An increase in lung oxygen carrying capacity (Vo2)
    • Figure 2- Effects of acclimatizing on fitness
    • http://anthro.palomar.edu/adapt/images/high_altitude_response_2.gif
    • Figure 1- positive correlation of hemoglobin and Vo2 max in acclimatized individuals
    • http://www.totalflexblog.com/wp-content/uploads/vo2max-and-hemoglobin.jpg
  9. Training methods and Techniques to stimulate High Altitude Environment

    Slide 9 - Training methods and Techniques to stimulate High Altitude Environment

    • Training Methods - Altitude Chamber
    • - Altitude Training Generators
    • - Altitude training masks
    • - Altitude Sleeping Chambers
    • - Blood Doping (EPO)
    • http://www.hintekindia.com/images/products-images/High%20Altitude-Chamber-(Hypoxico's-K2-High-Flow-Series)-large.jpg
    • http://www.hypoxico.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/hypoxico-all-purpose-mask.jpg
    • Figure 3- showing effects of athlete (Dvorak) with use of EPO compared to other athletes with no EPO use .
    • http://steepler.cnc.net/images/epo.gif
  10. Different Races and Endurance Running Performances

    Slide 10 - Different Races and Endurance Running Performances

    • Kenyans, Ethiopians as well as Eritreans are well known for their exceptional endurance running performances, specially in comparison to their white and Hispanic counterparts (Lucia 2006).
    • Figure 3 – recent top 100 marathon runners (Kenya vs UK)
    • http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/45685000/jpg/_45685549_466_top100.jpg
    • Figure 4 – graphs showing the percentage of male Kenyans marathon ranking and gold medal wins
    • http://i2.wp.com/www.sportsscientists.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/Screen-Shot-2014-03-07-at-8.26.31-AM.jpeg
  11. Slide 11

    • High altitude birth and upbringing.
    • Genetic make up of muscle fibres as well as proteins)
    • Environmental factors
    • Anthropometric factors (Lucia 2006).
    • Running economy (Wilber 2012)
    • Glucose > Fat metabolic dependence (Lucia 2006).
    • Diet
    • Other Factors Leading to Running Success
    • https://media2.wnyc.org/i/1200/627/c/80/1/kenyan_runners.jpg
    • http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-qeHNYOTruHM/U0CoSl5nB_I/AAAAAAAAAFg/uo-3cdHNvUY/s1600/MARATHON+-+Kenyan+Runners+Diet+-+FOOD+PYRAMID+DIAGRAM+96%25Vegetarian.jpg
    • http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-zp0pJ8UwSAs/T6Pm9q-LbFI/AAAAAAAADC8/rAweMX21HjE/s1600/pyramid-westernL.gif
  12. References

    Slide 12 - References

    • Hopkins, P.H, 2006. Skeletal muscle physiology. Continuing Education in Anaesthesia, Critical Pain and Care, [Online]. 6, 1-6. Available at: http://ceaccp.oxfordjournals.org/content/6/1/1.full [Accessed 02 April 2015].
    • Ghosh, A.G, 2004. Anaerobic Threshold: Its Concept and Role in Endurance Sport. The Malaysian Journal Of Medical Sciences, [Online]. 11/1, 24-36. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3438148/ [Accessed 02 April 2015].
    • Joyner, Coyle, M.J, E.C, 2007. Endurance exercise performance: the physiology of champions. The Journal of Physiology, [Online]. 586 (pt 1), 35-44. Available at: http:// http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2375555/ [Accessed 03 April 2015]
    • Herm, Knechtle, Rust, C.H, B.K, C.R, 2013. Performance of Kenyan athletes in mountain versus flat marathon running - An example in Switzerland - See more at: http://www.jhse.ua.es/jhse/article/view/471#sthash.iB4oLGYI.dpuf. Journal Of Human Sport And Exercise, [Online]. 8/4, 84-91. Available at: http://www.jhse.ua.es/jhse/article/view/471 [Accessed 15 April 2015].
    • Wilber, Pitsiladis, R.W, Y.P, 2012. Kenyan and Ethiopian distance runners: what makes them so good?. Us National Library of Medicine National Institutes Of Health, [Online]. 7 (pt 2), 92-102. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22634972 [Accessed 07 April 2015]
    • Lucia, Lanao, Olivan, A.L, J.L, J.O, 2006. Physiological characteristics of the best Eritrean runners – exceptional running economy. Physiological characteristics of the best Eritrean runners – exceptional running economy, 31, 530-545
    • Holloszy, Coyle, J.H, E.C, 1984. Adaptations of skeletal muscle to endurance exercise and their metabolic consequences. Journal Of Applied Physiology, [Online]. 56/4, 831-838. Available at:http://jap.physiology.org/content/56/4/831 [Accessed 19 April 2015]
    • Carzorla, Goret, O.C, L.G, 2006. Effects of high-altitude exercise training on contractile function of rat skinned cardiomyocyte. Oxford University Press Journals, [Online]. 6/20, 652-660. Available at: http://cardiovascres.oxfordjournals.org/content/71/4/652.full?maxtoshow=&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=altitude%20training&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&resourcetype=HWCIT[Accessed 22 April 2015].