Self Guided Lesson 1 Memory and Cognition

Covers the fundamentals of different memory models.

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Self Guided Lesson 1 Memory and Cognition

Created 3 years ago

Duration 0:29:40
lesson view count 21
Covers the fundamentals of different memory models.
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Slide Content
  1. Memory and Cognition

    Slide 1 - Memory and Cognition

    • Self Guided Instruction: Lesson One
  2. What is memory?

    Slide 2 - What is memory?

    • Def: learning that has persisted over time.
    • Psychologists examine the human memory system of a process of:
    • Encoding – getting information in the brain
    • Storage – retaining information
    • Retrieval – getting information out of the brain
  3. Slide 3

    • BUT, our brain is not a computer
    • Our memoires are more fragile and less literal
    • Computers are fast, but process sequentially – humans use parallel processing
    • Brains are a bit slower, but do many things at once
  4. Slide 4

    • Atkinson –Shiffrin Model
    • We form memories in three stages:
    • Sensory memory – we record “to be remembered” environmental sensations
    • Short term memory - We process that information here through rehearsal
    • Long term memory – information moves into LTM for retrieval
  5. Changes to Atkinson-Shiffrin’s Model

    Slide 5 - Changes to Atkinson-Shiffrin’s Model

    • Sometimes information goes directly into LTM
    • Further research has determined that STM is more of a working memory
  6. Encoding – automatic processing

    Slide 6 - Encoding – automatic processing

    • Because we use parallel processing (our brain is doing many things at the same time) and we cannot possibly focus our attention on everything, we automatically process information about:
    • Space
    • Time
    • Frequency
    • Well-learned information
  7. Encoding – effortful processing

    Slide 7 - Encoding – effortful processing

    • Uses effort and attention (like studying!)
    • Strategies
    • Rehearsal – conscious repetition
    • Ebbinghaus
  8. Encoding – effortful processing

    Slide 8 - Encoding – effortful processing

    • Spacing effect – learning over time
    • MORE THAN 300 experiments in the last 100 years have proven that spacing works! (hint, hint)
    • Testing effect – repeated quizzing
    • Spaced study and self assessment beat cramming any day
  9. Encoding – effortful processing

    Slide 9 - Encoding – effortful processing

    • Serial position effect
    • Primacy effect – in a list, we remember the items that come first
    • Recency effect- in a list, we more effectively remember the items that come last
    • Next in line effect – we don’t encode what previous people say if we are waiting for our turn to speak
  10. Encoding – Levels of processing

    Slide 10 - Encoding – Levels of processing

    • Visual encoding - picture images
    • GOOD
    • Acoustic encoding – of sounds
    • BETTER
    • Semantic encoding – of meaning
    • BEST
  11. Slide 11

    • Visual encoding – involves imagery
    • We are better at concrete words than concepts
    • The mnemonic (memory tricks) of the peg-word system uses visual encoding
    • One-bun
    • Two-shoe
    • Three-tree
    • Four-door
    • Five – hive
    • Six – sticks
    • Seven – heaven
    • Eight – gate
    • Nine – swine
    • Ten - hen
  12. Slide 12

    • Remember these numbers:
    • 17761812186191719411964
  13. How did you do?

    Slide 13 - How did you do?

  14. Slide 14

    • Mnemonic device – chunking – organizing information into familiar, manageable units – often occurs automatically1776
    • 1812
    • 1861
    • 1917
    • 1941
    • 1964
    • Mnemonic device: hierarchies (concepts divided into narrower concepts and facts)
  15. Storage:  Retaining information

    Slide 16 - Storage: Retaining information

    • Sensory memory –
    • Iconic memory – fleeting photographic memory
    • Duration – a few tenths of a second
    • Echoic memory – fleeting acoustic memory
    • Duration – 3 to 4 seconds
  16. Slide 17

    • Working/short term memory
    • Of the information we take in via our sensory memory some we keep and other info we discard
    • If we don’t pay attention to the info, it will fade
    • Miller’s Magical Number 7 +/- 2
    • If it’s not rehearsed, it’s lost
  17. Slide 18

    • Long term memory
    • Capacity – limitless
    • Forget the wrinkle theory…..