CH02

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CH02

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  1. Chapter 2History of Management

    Slide 1 - Chapter 2History of Management

    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
    • MGMT7
  2. © 2015 Cengage Learning

    Slide 2 - © 2015 Cengage Learning

    • 2-1 explain the origins of management
    • 2-2 explain the history of scientific management
    • 2-3 discuss the history of bureaucratic and administrative management
    • 2-4 explain the history of human relations management
    • 2-5 discuss the history of operations, information, systems, and contingency management
  3. Management Ideas and Practices throughout History

    Slide 3 - Management Ideas and Practices throughout History

    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
    • 2-1
  4. Why We Need Managers Today

    Slide 4 - Why We Need Managers Today

    • During the Industrial Revolution…
    • Availability of power enabled low-paid, unskilled labor to replace high-paid skilled artisans
    • Job carried out in large, formal organizations rather than fields, homes, or small shops
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
    • 2-1
  5. Taylor’s Four Principles of Scientific Management

    Slide 5 - Taylor’s Four Principles of Scientific Management

    • 2-2
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
  6. Frank and Lillian Gilbreth

    Slide 6 - Frank and Lillian Gilbreth

    • Motion study
    • breaking each task or job into separate motions and then eliminating those that are unnecessary or repetitive
    • Typically yielded production increases of 25 to 300 percent.
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
    • 2-2
  7. Henry Gantt

    Slide 7 - Henry Gantt

    • Gantt Chart
    • visually indicates what tasks must be completed at which times in order to complete a project
    • One of the first to recommend that companies train and develop workers
    • “A scientific investigation in detail of each piece of work, and the determination of the best method and the shortest time in which the work can be done. “
    • “A teacher capable of teaching the best method and the shortest time.”
    • “Reward for both teacher and pupil when the latter is successful.”
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
    • 2-2
  8. Gantt Chart

    Slide 8 - Gantt Chart

    • 2-2
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
  9. Bureaucratic Management: Max Weber

    Slide 9 - Bureaucratic Management: Max Weber

    • Bureaucracy – “the exercise of control on the basis of knowledge”
    • people led by virtue of rational-legal authority
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
    • 2-3
  10. Administrative Management: Henri Fayol

    Slide 10 - Administrative Management: Henri Fayol

    • “The success of an enterprise generally depends much more on the administrative ability of its leaders than on their technical ability.”
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
    • 2-3
  11. Fayol’s Fourteen Principles of Management

    Slide 11 - Fayol’s Fourteen Principles of Management

    • Division of work
    • Authority and responsibility
    • Discipline
    • Unity of command
    • Unity of direction
    • Subordination of individual interests to the general interest
    • Remuneration
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
    • 2-3
  12. Fayol’s Fourteen Principles of Management

    Slide 12 - Fayol’s Fourteen Principles of Management

    • Centralization
    • Scalar chain
    • Order
    • Equity
    • Stability of tenure of personnel
    • Initiative
    • Esprit de corps
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
    • 2-3
  13. Constructive Conflict: Mary Parker Follett

    Slide 13 - Constructive Conflict: Mary Parker Follett

    • Conflict – “the appearance of difference, difference of opinions, of interests”
    • Integrative conflict resolution
    • have both parties indicate their preferences and then work together to find an alternative that meets the needs of both
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
    • 2-4
  14. Mary Parker Follett

    Slide 14 - Mary Parker Follett

    • On constructive conflict
    • “As conflict—difference—is here in this world, as we cannot avoid it, we should, I think, use it to work for us. Instead of condemning it, we should set it to work for us.”
    • On power
    • “It seems to me that whereas power usually means power-over, the power of some person or group over some other person or group, it is possible to develop the conception of power-with, a jointly developed power, a co-active, not a coercive power.”
    • On the giving of orders
    • “An advantage of not exacting blind obedience, of discussing your instructions with your subordinates, is that if there is any resentment, any come-back, you get it out into the open, and when it is in the open you can deal with it.”
    • On authority
    • “Authority should go with knowledge and experience, that is where obedience is due, no matter whether it is up the line or down.”
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
    • 2-4
  15. Mary Parker Follett

    Slide 15 - Mary Parker Follett

    • On leadership
    • “Of the greatest importance is the ability to grasp a total situation. . . . Out of a welter of facts, experience, desires, aims, the leader must find the unifying thread. He must see a whole, not a mere kaleidoscope of pieces. . . The higher up you go, the more ability you have to have of this kind.”
    • On coordination
    • “The most important thing to remember about unity is—that there is no such thing. There is only unifying. You cannot get unity and expect it to last a day— or five minutes. Every man in a business should be taking part in a certain process and that process is unifying.”
    • On control
    • “Central control is coming more and more to mean the co-relation of many controls rather than a superimposed control.”
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
    • 2-4
  16. Hawthorne Studies: Elton Mayo

    Slide 16 - Hawthorne Studies: Elton Mayo

    • Human factors related to work were found to be more important than physical conditions or design of work.
    • Workers not just extensions of machines, and financial incentives weren’t necessarily the most important for motivating workers.
    • Managers better understood effect of group social interactions, employee satisfaction, and attitudes on individual and group performance.
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
    • 2-4
  17. Cooperation and Acceptance of Authority: Chester Barnard

    Slide 17 - Cooperation and Acceptance of Authority: Chester Barnard

    • Organization – “system of consciously coordinated activities or forces of two more persons”
    • The extent to which people willingly cooperate in an organization depends on how workers perceive executive authority and whether they’re willing to accept it.
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
    • 2-4
  18. Zone of Indifference

    Slide 18 - Zone of Indifference

    • People will be indifferent to managerial directives if they…
    • are understood
    • are consistent with organization’s purpose
    • are compatible with people’s personal interests
    • can actually be carried out by those people
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
    • 2-4
  19. Operations Management

    Slide 19 - Operations Management

    • Eli Whitney
    • standardized, interchangeable parts
    • Garspard Monge
    • techniques for drawing 3-D objects on paper
    • Oldsmobile Motor Works
    • “hand-to-mouth inventory”
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
    • 2-5
  20. Information Management

    Slide 20 - Information Management

    • Throughout history, organizations have pushed for and quickly adopted new information technologies to reduce the cost or increase the speed with which they can acquire, retrieve, or communicate information.
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
    • 2-5
  21. Systems Management

    Slide 21 - Systems Management

    • System
    • a set of interrelated elements or parts that function as a whole
    • Subsystems
    • smaller systems within a larger system
    • Synergy
    • occurs when two or more subsystems working together can produce more than they can working apart
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
    • 2-5
  22. Systems View of Organizations

    Slide 22 - Systems View of Organizations

    • 2-5
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
  23. Contingency Management

    Slide 23 - Contingency Management

    • There are no universal management theories; the most effective management theory or idea depends on the kinds of problems or situations that managers or organizations are facing at a particular time.
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
    • 2-5
  24. Barcelona Restaurant Group

    Slide 24 - Barcelona Restaurant Group

    • What aspects of restaurant work are especially challenging to wait staff, and how does Barcelona’s approach to management help employees overcome the downsides of the job?
    • What steps do the leaders of Barcelona Restaurant Group take to insure cooperation and acceptance of authority from their employees?
    • Would the management style of Barcelona Restaurant Group best be described as scientific management or contingency management?
    • © 2015 Cengage Learning
  25. Barcelona Restaurant Group

    Slide 25 - Barcelona Restaurant Group

    • © 2015 Cengage Learning