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Slide 1 - Broadcast Domain
- All devices on a network or a segment are connected together so they all receive the same broadcast signal from a computer
- Signal received cannot pass through a router, or similar device
- Signal can pass thru a switch unless it is configured as VLAN
- Simplistic example where some of the switches are not VLAN’s
- VLAN Switch
Slide 2 - Collision Domain
- Two or more devices on the same segment or network are able to cause their signal to interfere with the signal from another device on the same segment or network
- VLAN Switch
Slide 3 - Other Addressing Technologies
- Network Address Translation (NAT)
- Assigning IP addresses
- Addressing schemes
Slide 4 - Supernetting
- The process of combining several IP ranges, usually Class C ranges, into one larger network
- It really is just using CIDR
- Instead of extending the number of “1’s”, you can contract (remove) one (or more)
- Two IP address ranges: 22.214.171.124 and 126.96.36.199
- Combine (supernet) them into one aggregate range of IP addresses
- Use the CIDR notation of 188.8.131.52/23
Slide 5 - Network Address Translation (NAT)
- Take an IP address from an ISP or other location and use that one IP address to allow all Internet-enable devices to which it is connected to access the Internet
Slide 6 - Types of NAT
- Source Network Address Translation (SNAT)
- Port Address Translation (PAT)
- The difference between NAT and PAT
Slide 7 - Public versus Private Addresses
- Public IP addresses can be used on the Internet
- Private IP addresses cannot be used on the Internet
- Three address ranges set aside that can never be used on public networks:
- 10.0.0.0 to 10.255.255.255
- 172.16.0.0 to 172.31.255.255
- 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255
Slide 8 - Automatic Private Internet Protocol Addressing (APIPA) Service
- 169.254.0.1 to 169.254.255.254
- Used by Microsoft operating systems
- Acts as a failover in case there is a problem when trying to connect to an IP address range in some other way
Slide 9 - Assigning IP Addresses
- IP addresses assigned to computers manually by the network administrator
- Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
- Assigns IP addresses dynamically without requiring constant input from network administrator
Slide 10 - Network Segment with a DHCP Server and Clients
Slide 11 - The DHCP Process
Slide 12 - Addressing Schemes
Slide 13 - Summary
- A physical address is the physical binary address every network device is given by its manufacturer; it is hard coded.
- The physical address of a network device is 48 bits long and is made up of 1s and 0s.
- Every computer on a network needs a unique logical address.
- Subnetting breaks up an IP address range into smaller pieces so a given range of IP addresses can be used in more than one network.
Slide 14 - Summary (Continued)
- Classful IP addressing is the classful method of determining what portion of an IP address is the network ID and what portion denotes hosts.
- Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) is standard notation that indicates the network ID and host ID of an IP address.
- IPv6 uses 128-bit IP addresses. Addresses are expressed in hexadecimal numbers, 32 numbers and letters, 0–9 and A–F.
- The first 16 hexadecimal digits of an IPv6 address are the network ID, the last 16 digits the host ID.
Slide 15 - Summary (Continued)
- In a broadcast domain, all devices on a network or a segment are connected together so they all receive the same broadcast signal from a computer.
- In a collision domain, two or more devices on the same segment or network are able to cause their signal to interfere with the signal from another device on the same segment or network.
- Supernetting is the process of combining several IP ranges, usually Class C ranges, into one larger network.
Slide 16 - Summary (Continued)
- Network Address Translation (NAT) takes an IP address from an ISP or other location and uses that one IP address to allow all Internet-enable devices to which it is connected to access the Internet.
- Static IP addresses are assigned manually.
- Dynamic IP addresses are assigned automatically using Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).
Slide 17 - Self-Assessment
- Could you show the subnets for this address with CIDR notation: 184.108.40.206/27
- True/False – in a subnet, the very first address is used as the network ID and the last is the broadcast ID
- How many positions in a subnet mask with a CIDR /28 notation would there be? (Hint: 32 – 28)
- When you send from a device on the network to another device on ANOTHER network, do you use both physical and logical addresses? How?
- What is the difference between a collision domain and a broadcast domain?
- What is NAT? What is SNAT? What is PAT?