BIOL 2300 - Case Studies 1

This is a case study for Microbiology and Public Health (BIOL 2300) at Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA (33.7528° N, 84.3861° W). Robert Maxwell, Ph.D.

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BIOL 2300 - Case Studies 1

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This is a case study for Microbiology and Public Health (BIOL 2300) at Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA (33.7528° N, 84.3861° W). Robert Maxwell, Ph.D.
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  1. Case Study 1

    Slide 1 - Case Study 1

    • BIOL 2300
  2. Case 1

    Slide 2 - Case 1

    • A woman is transported to the hospital via ambulance. The EMTs call in, reporting the following:
    • A woman in her early 20’s
    • Temperature of 102.9⁰F (39.4⁰C)
    • Chills
    • Appears confused
    • Showing signs of nuchal rigidity.
  3. Case 1

    Slide 3 - Case 1

  4. Case 1

    Slide 4 - Case 1

  5. Case 1

    Slide 5 - Case 1

  6. Case 1

    Slide 6 - Case 1

    • While in the hospital, the woman goes into seizure. The doctor orders 15 mg/kg/ml Phenobarbital in D5W at a rate of 1mg/kg/min. After a few minutes, the seizures begin to subside. A lumbar puncture is ordered.
    • Consider:
    • What other tests could be performed?
    • What other treatments could be initiated while tests are performed?
    • Why was Phenobarbital chosen?
    • What side-effects should you watch out for?
  7. Case 1

    Slide 7 - Case 1

  8. Case 1

    Slide 8 - Case 1

  9. Case 1

    Slide 9 - Case 1

    • Lumbar Puncture (AKA Spinal Tap)
  10. Case 1

    Slide 10 - Case 1

    • The doctor orders a CT scan.
    • The result is seen in figure 2 (figure 1 is given for comparison).
    • Figure 1: Normal CT scan
    • Figure 2: Patient's CT scan
  11. Case 1

    Slide 11 - Case 1

    • Speculate on what you are seeing.
    • What is different between the normal and Patient CT scan?
    • Figure 1: Normal CT scan
    • Figure 2: Patient's CT scan
  12. Case 1

    Slide 12 - Case 1

    • A Lumbar Puncture (Spinal Tap) was performed.
    • Below is a micrograph of what was seen in the Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF).
    • Figure 3: Micrograph of patient CSF
  13. Case 1

    Slide 13 - Case 1

    • From the micrograph, what do you suspect as the causative organism?
  14. Case 1

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  15. Case 1

    Slide 15 - Case 1

    • You suspect Neisseria meningitides as the causative agent.
    • You follow up with biochemical tests to confirm the diagnosis.
    • Which biochemical tests would help you confirm a diagnosis of Neisseria meningitides?
    • Identification and Characterization of Neisseria meningitides by the CDC is a great resource to use to determine which tests are important.
  16. Case 1

    Slide 16 - Case 1

  17. Case 1

    Slide 17 - Case 1

    • Once Neisseria meningitides is confirmed, what is the recommended antibiotic treatment?
    • Hint: CDC Pinkbook
  18. Case 1

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  19. Case 1

    Slide 19 - Case 1

    • This concludes the case study.
    • Here are a few more questions to consider while you study.
    • Are there ways to prevent Neisseria meningitides infections?
    • Are there vaccines against Neisseria meningitides?
    • Are there any long term consequences to having Neisseria meningitides?
    • What is the general prognosis of a patient with meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitides?