Intro to Forensic Science_C1

Intro Lecture

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Intro to Forensic Science_C1

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Intro Lecture
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  1. Forensic Science

    Slide 1 - Forensic Science

    • Chapter 1- Introduction
  2. Slide 2

    • Forensic science is the application of science to legal issues involved in both the criminal and civil justice systems.
    • Definition
  3. Slide 3

    • Applied Sciences
  4. Earliest records from third-century China

    Slide 4 - Earliest records from third-century China

    • A Collection of Criminal Cases
    • Chinese one of the first to recognize the potential for fingerprints as a means of identification.
    • 1700-1800’s
    • Physicians and scientists gained more knowledge of the sciences and functions of the human anatomy
    • History and Development
  5. 1814, Mathieu Orfila published a paper on the detection of poisons

    Slide 5 - 1814, Mathieu Orfila published a paper on the detection of poisons

    • 1879, Alphonse Bertillon developed Anthropometry
    • 1893, Hans Gross wrote a book the first book on Criminal Investigations
    • Best known 19th century, forensic investigator was the fictional character, Sherlock Holmes
  6. 1901, Dr. Karl Landsteiner discovered that blood could be placed in groups

    Slide 6 - 1901, Dr. Karl Landsteiner discovered that blood could be placed in groups

    • 1910, Albert S. Osborn a pioneer in working with questioned documents wrote a book on this applied science
    • 1910, Edmond Locard started the first crime lab in Lyons, France
    • Locard’s Theory of Exchange
    • Twentieth Century
  7. Microscope became into wider use

    Slide 7 - Microscope became into wider use

    • Army Colonel Calvin Goodard used comparison microscope to compare bullets to see if they came from the same weapon.
  8. 1984, Sir Alec Jeffreys developed the first DNA profiling test in England.

    Slide 8 - 1984, Sir Alec Jeffreys developed the first DNA profiling test in England.

    • Computerized data bases
    • Fingerprints (AFIS/IAFIS)
    • Bullets and shell casings (NIBIN)
    • DNA (CODIS)
    • Modern Scientific Advances
  9. In 1923 LAPD under the guidance of August Vollmer created the first crime lab in the U.S. I

    Slide 9 - In 1923 LAPD under the guidance of August Vollmer created the first crime lab in the U.S. I

    • The FBI created a crime lab in 1932
    • FBI Lab is now recognized as the world’s largest and busiest crime lab
    • In the U.S. there is not a national system of crime labs
    • Fragmented just as is the CJ System
    • Some have argued the need to separate crime labs from law enforcement. (GO)
    • Crime Laboratories
  10. 350 crime labs in the U.S.

    Slide 10 - 350 crime labs in the U.S.

    • One person to more than 100
    • Diverse services
    • Major growth in crime labs started in the 1970’s.
    • Why?
    • Organization of Crime Laboratory
  11. Four major federal labs

    Slide 11 - Four major federal labs

    • FBI
    • DEA
    • ATF
    • Postal Service
    • Federal Crime Labs
  12. Great Britain has a national system of regional crime labs

    Slide 12 - Great Britain has a national system of regional crime labs

    • Under direction of the government’s Home Office
    • Reorganized in 1990’s into entity called the Forensic Science Service
    • British System
  13. Six Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) regional laboratories

    Slide 13 - Six Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) regional laboratories

    • Centre of Forensic Science in Toronto
    • The Institute of Legal Medicine and Police Science in Montreal
    • Throughout the world over 100 countries have at least one crime lab facility
    • Canadian System
  14. Physical Sciences

    Slide 14 - Physical Sciences

    • Chemistry
    • Physics
    • Geology
    • Biology
    • DNA
    • Hair & fiber
    • Botanical
    • Basic Services of Full-Service Labs
  15. Fireams/Toolmarks

    Slide 15 - Fireams/Toolmarks

    • Document Examination Unit
    • Photography
  16. Slide 16

    • Toxicology
    • Latent Print
    • Polygraph
    • Voiceprint Analysis
    • Crime-Scene Investigation
    • Optional Services
  17. Not necessarily associated with local crime labs

    Slide 17 - Not necessarily associated with local crime labs

    • Forensic Pathology
    • Forensic Entomology
    • Forensic Psychiatry
    • Forensic Odontology
    • Forensic Engineering
    • Forensic Computer and Digital Analysis
    • Specialized Services
  18. Analyzing the evidence

    Slide 18 - Analyzing the evidence

    • Major methods of solving cases:
    • Eyewitness
    • Confession
    • Physical Evidence
    • Which one is free of inherent error or bias
    • Functions of the Forensic Scientist
  19. A process that uses strict guidelines to ensure careful and systematic collection, organization, and analysis of information.

    Slide 19 - A process that uses strict guidelines to ensure careful and systematic collection, organization, and analysis of information.

    • Formulating a question
    • Develop a hypothesis
    • Test the hypothesis
    • Use of a scientifically valid and accepted process
    • When validated it becomes evidence
    • Admissibility of Scientific Evidence
    • 1923 Frye v. United States
    • 1993 Daubert v. Dow Chemical Company
    • 1999 Kumho Tire Co, Ltd v. Carmichael
    • Scientific Method
  20. An individual whom the court determines to possess knowledge relevant to the trial that is not expected of the average layperson.

    Slide 20 - An individual whom the court determines to possess knowledge relevant to the trial that is not expected of the average layperson.

    • Expert Witness
  21. Sophisticated lab equipment is not of any value if evidence is not recognized and properly collected

    Slide 21 - Sophisticated lab equipment is not of any value if evidence is not recognized and properly collected

    • A number of agencies either have CSU staffed 24/7 or personnel on-call.
    • Smaller agencies leave the collection of evidence to patrol officers and detectives on property crimes.
    • Training in the Proper Recognition, Collection, and Preservation of Evidence
  22. Slide 22

    • Closing Information