powerpoint 3.8,3.9,3.14,3.4 test
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- Alexander Hamilton Speech to the New York Ratifying Convention
- Date: June 24, 1788
- While the constitution continues to be read, and its principles known, the states, must, by every rational man, be considered as essential component parts of the union; and therefore the idea of sacrificing the former to the latter is totally inadmissible.
Slide 2 - Federalism.
- Essential Questions
- What is federalism? How is power divided between the federal and state governments?
- NGSSS Benchmarks
- SS.7.C.3.4 Identify the relationship and division of powers between the federal government and state governments.
- In this lesson, students will be introduced to the concept of federalism by reading text, examining the U.S. Constitution and applying their understanding to various examples and scenarios.
- Learning Goals/Benchmark Clarifications
- - Students will define the system of federalism.
- - Students will analyze how federalism limits government power.
- - Students will compare concurrent powers, enumerated powers, reserved powers, and delegated powers as they relate to state and federal government.
- - Students will analyze the issues related to the Tenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.
Slide 3 - Power
- Enumerated or Delegated Powers
- Powers specifically listed in the U.S. Constitution for the federal (national) government only
- The power to raise and support an army and navy.
- The power to coin money.
- The power to declare war.
- The power to conduct foreign policy.
- The power to regulate trade between states and internationally.
- Reserved Powers
- Powers that are given to the states by the Tenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution
- The power to run elections.
- The power to set up and run schools.
- The power to establish local governments
- The power to regulate business in the state.
- Concurrent Powers
- Powers shared by the federal (national) and state governments
- The power to levy taxes (tax the people).
- The power to establish courts.
- The ability to borrow money.
- Local Government Powers
- Powers given to towns, cities and counties by the Florida Constitution
- The power to create speed limits.
- The power to protect citizens from crime.
- The power to provide services related to garbage, sewage, fire protection, and traffic control.
Slide 4 - Read the text and mark main ideas with an M and details with a D.
- Federalism is found in the U.S. Constitution. In the Constitution, there are powers specifically listed for the federal government and an amendment about state government powers. Powers set aside specifically for the federal government are called enumerated or delegated powers. Powers for each branch of the federal government are located in Articles I, II, and III. Powers for state governments are called reserved powers and are listed in the Tenth Amendment. Some powers belong to both the federal and state governments. These powers are called concurrent powers. Local governments get their powers from state constitutions. The Florida Constitution outlines the organization and powers of county and city governments.
- The powers of each level of government relates to the types of issues each level deals with. The federal government has the power to handle issues the entire nation is concerned about. The state governments have the power to handle issues that concern citizens of particular states. Similarly, local governments have the power to address issues that concern citizens in towns, cities and counties.
- DEFINE FEDERALISM:
Slide 5 - Before the U.S. Constitution, the United States had the Articles of Confederation and was organized with a confederal system. A confederal system is a system of government where power is held by independent states and there is little power in the federal (national) government. The U.S. Constitution was written because of concerns about the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation. The federal government had very little power and the states acted as independent nations with too much power. Government power was unbalanced and there was no sense of national unity (togetherness).
- To solve these problems, the U.S. Constitution was written and the United States moved from a confederal system to a system of federalism. The Founding Fathers had a big goal. They needed to limit state power because states had too much power under the Articles of Confederation. They also needed to create a federal government with limited power. As a solution, the Founding Fathers created a system of federalism. This means that power is shared between the federal, state, and local governments. The federal government has its own powers, shares some powers with the states, and gives states some of their own powers. By dividing power between different levels, this limits the power of each level of government and one level of government cannot become too powerful. How does federalism limit government power? Highlight the relevant passages in the text that helped you answer this question.
Slide 6 - Who Has the Power?.
- Decide which level or levels of government has the power to deal with each of the questions on the list and what type of power they have to deal with the issue. Write the level or levels (F, S, L) and their associated power (D, R, C, L) in the correct column.
- 1. Who is going to keep people safe from speeding cars (speed limits)?
- 2. Who is going to protect us from foreign invasion or threats?
- 3. There is a pothole in the street outside my house. Who should I talk to?
- 4. A group wants to establish a new city. Who should they talk to?
- 5. Who decides who might get married legally?
- 6. Who resolves conflicts between states?
- 7. My garbage hasn’t been picked up in two weeks, who do I talk to?
- 8. Who makes sure that the country’s economy is safe and stable?
- 9. My taxes keep going up! Who can I talk to about this?
- 10. Who is in charge of passing laws around here?
Slide 7 - Government Obligations and Services.
- Essential Questions
- What are the differences between local, state, and federal government obligations and services? Why do we have these differences in our form of government?
- NGSSS Benchmarks
- SS.7.C.3.14 Differentiate between local, state, and federal governments’ obligations and services.
- In this lesson, students will learn about the distribution of powers and obligations between the levels of government, compare and contrast the roles that these levels of government play in their lives, and understand how the U. S. Constitution is the basis for the obligations and powers of each level of government.
- Learning Goals/Benchmark Clarifications
- - Students will evaluate scenarios in order to determine which level of government provides specific services.
- - Students will classify government services according to level of government in order to evaluate the role that each plays in their lives.
- - Students will compare the obligations/powers of governments at each level.
- - Students will compare the reserved, concurrent and expressed/enumerated powers of government.
Slide 9 - The United States Supreme Court
- consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and such number of Associate Justices as may be fixed by Congress. The number of Associate Justices is currently fixed at eight (28 U.S.C. §1). Power to nominate the Justices is vested in the President of the United States and appointments are made with the advice and consent of the Senate. Article III, §1, of the Constitution further provides that "[t]he Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behavior, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office."
- Supreme Court of Florida
- The highest appellate court in Florida, the Florida Supreme Court’s 150+ years span a time when the state was the least populated (1845) to the present (2014) when it ranks fourth nationwide. Decisions stemming from Florida’s highest court have helped shape, certainly, the state itself, but the nation as a whole.
- Trial Courts
- The majority of jury trials in Florida take place before one judge sitting as judge of the circuit court. The circuit courts are sometimes referred to as courts of general jurisdiction, in recognition of the fact that most criminal and civil cases originate at this level.
Slide 14 - Term
- Visual Representation
- The organization through which political authority is exercised at the national level, government of the United States
- State Government
- The organization through which political authority is exercised at the state level, government of a specific state
- Local Government
- The governing body of a municipality or county
Slide 18 - Federal vs. State Powers
- Federal Powers
- 1.Express powers: Powers that the Constitution explicitly grants the federal government. These include the powers to:
- ◦Collect taxes
- ◦Regulate interstate commerce
- ◦Coin money, regulate currency, set standards of weights and measures
- ◦Declare war
- Raise and maintain an army and navy
- 2.Implied powers: Based on the elastic clause (Art. I, § 8, cl. 5), powers considered “necessary and proper” for carrying out the enumerated (or express) powers
- ◦For example, in 1791, Federalists in Congress argued that the creation of a national bank was “necessary and proper” for Congress to execute its enumerated powers to coin and borrow money and regulate currency. McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) confirmed Congress’s right to found this national bank.
- 3.Denied powers: Powers that the Constitution explicitly denies to the federal government. These include:
- ◦The writ of habeas corpus cannot be suspended unless in cases of rebellion or invasion, when deemed necessary to national safety.
- ◦No bill of attainder or ex post facto law can be passed.
- 4.“Supreme law of the land”: the Constitution and federal laws take precedence over state laws (Art. 6)
Slide 20 - U.S. History Overview 1: Jamestown to the Civil War
- Instructions: use paper and create an outline just like the one in the video (ONLY12 minutes of the video)
Slide 22 - .Federal, State, and Local Powers and Services.
- Directions: Learning new terms and concepts by determining their definition as they appear in the text in context is an important skill. While reading, your task is to identify the key terms by marking the evidence that helps you define the term and then summarizing the term and using complete sentences.
- By the end of this reading, you will be able to summarize the powers for each level of government.
- I. Federal Government –the Constitution assigns, or delegates, specific powers to the federal government.
- Federal Powers – these are specific powers that ONLY the government holds
- a.Delegated powers – specific powers
- b.Expressed powers – are clearly LISTED in the Constitution
- c.Implied powers –these powers aren’t WRITTEN OUT
- d.Inherent powers – these powers are NOT LISTED in the Constitution
- Summary of Services – Delegated, expressed and enumerated powers are clearly written in the U.S. Constitution. However implied and inherent powers are “necessary and proper” for our government to be able to do to carry out its clearly written powers to run the government.
Slide 23 - State Powers and Services.
- II. State Government -
- State Powers - states to decide whether or not citizens must be registered in order to vote on Election Day.
- a. Reserved powers - State legislatures determine the standard for K-12 education. Such as what will be taught to students, and in which grades those subjects will be taught.
- The Sandra Day O’ Conner Civics Education Act A(2010) mandates all 7th graders to pass this course.
- States ratify the new Constitution
- Summary of Services – STATES have reserved powers to do many things for its citizens; suchas choose members of the Electoral College, who choose the president, make laws, enforce laws, provide services through the county governments and city governments, and the states are guaranteed a republican (representative) form of government and protection from invasion and against domestic violence. States are forbidden to do things delegated powers of the National government like declare war, coin money.
- States must approve of amendments to the U.S. Constitution
Slide 24 - Local Powers and Services.
- IV. Local Government –City of St. Petersburg
- Local Powers –local governments provided services that their citizens need daily like clean water for a monthly fee
- Summary of Services –Without local services of municipality most of us couldn’t live a better quality of life than many poor countries around the world; services like clean water, trash pick up and electric services
Slide 25 - III. Concurrent Powers -
- Examples: Both the state and national governments have the power to tax; some states tax incomes (New York) while others do not (Florida). The power to tax is a shared power.
- .Federal, State, and Local Powers and Services that are shared and these services and powers can occur at the same time!
Slide 26 - Excerpts from Article I, Section 8 of the U.S. Constitution
- Directions: For each excerpt of Article I, Section 8, summarize the text in your own words.
- What it says:
- What it means:
- SECTION. 8. The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;
- the power to set taxes, tariffs and other means of raising federal revenue, and to authorize the expenditure of all federal funds
- To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;
- The U.S. Congress has power to borrow money
- To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes;
- The U.S. Congress has power to control trade between states, native Americans and foreign nations
- To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;
- The U.S. Congress has power to make the same steps everyone must take to naturalize and to file for bankruptcy.
- To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;
- The U.S. Congress has the power to print money and assess its value. The legislature as has power to set weights of measuring all items bought and sold in America.
- To establish Post Offices and post Roads;
- create post offices and roads
- To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;
- power to create ALL state & local courts
- To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;
- A commission granted by the government to a private individual, to take the property of a foreign state, or of the citizens or subjects of such state, as a reparation for an injury committed by such state, its citizens or subjects. A vessel loaded with merchandise, on a voyage to a friendly port, but armed for its own defence in case of attack by an enemy, is also called a letter of marque.
- To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;
- power to train an army and fight an enemy in battle for 2 years
- To provide and maintain a Navy; To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces;
- To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.